Antiquarian: Pre-1940 References
Abbott, John S. C. (1875). History of Maine: From the
earliest discovery of the region by the Northmen until the present time.
B. B. Russell, Boston, MA.
Baxter, James Phinney, Ed. (1884). Sir
Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine. 3 vols. Hoyt, Fogg, and
Donham, Portland, ME. Reprinted in 1890 as The life and letters of Sir
Ferdinando Gorges. Prince Society Publications, 18 - 20, Boston, MA.
Reprinted in 1967, NY. W.
Baxter, James Phinney, Ed. (1884). Trelawny
papers: Edited and illustrated with historical notes and an appendix. Hoyt, Fogg, and Dunham, Portland, ME.
- Looking for a reprint of this.
Baxter, James Phinney, Ed. (1889-1916). Documentary
history of the state of Maine. 24 vols. The Maine Historical Society,
Baxter, James Phinney, Ed. (1894). Pioneers of New France
in New England. Munsell's Sons, Albany, NY.
- "In his preface to volume 24 the editor wrote: 'This volume completes the
documents relating to the Indians of Maine...' Volumes 23 and 24
are indeed the Indian volumes. It seemed inappropriate to tabulate
the chronological indices of these two volumes because of the space
which would be required. Volumes 12 and 13 also have been noted because
of the number of letters and petitions related to Indian problems.
It would be difficult to find chronological tables better prepared and
more informative than those done in these volumes." (Ray, The
Indians of Maine, pg. 31).
Beston, Henry, Ed. (1950). White pine and blue water: A state of Maine reader. City & Country Readers Series. Farrar, Straus and Company, New York, NY. IS.
Bradford, William. (1912) History of Plymouth plantation
1620-1647. Mass. Historical Society, 2 vols, Boston, MA.
Bradford, William.  (1991). Of Plymouth plantation. Ed. by Samuel E. Morison. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY.
Brown, John Marshall. (1876). Coasting voyages in the
Gulf of Maine made in the years 1604, 1605 and 1606 by Samuel Champlain. Maine
Historical Society Collections 7. Series 1. E. Upton & Son, Bath,
ME. pg. 243-266.
Burrage, Champlin, Ed. (1918). John Pory's lost description
of Plymouth in the earliest days of the Pilgrim fathers. Boston, MA.
Burrage, Henry S., Ed. (1887). Rosier's
relation of Weymouth's voyage to the coast of Maine, 1605. Gorges Society,
Burrage, Rev. Henry S. (1895). The first mention of Pemaquid
in History. Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Second
Series, Vol. VI. pg. 53 - 62.
- See our information file for a reproduction
of James Rosier, A True Relation of Captain George Weymouth his Voyage.
Made this Present Yeere 1605.
Burrage, Henry S. (1904). The Plymouth colonists
in Maine. Maine Historical Society Collections, 3rd series, vol. 1.
Burrage, Henry S. (1914). The
beginnings of colonial Maine 1602-1658. Marks Printing House for the
State of Maine, Portland, ME. X.
Burrage, Henry S. (1923). Gorges and the grant of the
Province of Maine, 1622. Printed for the state, Augusta, ME.
- A comprehensive summary of the available literature on the early history
of Maine by one of Maine's most prolific 20th century writers. Burrage
starts with The Relation of a Voyage unto New England by Rosier,
continues with the Trelawny Papers, at the
time a recently discovered manuscript pertaining to the history of Richmond's
Island and then discusses Percival Baxter's publications
including Gorges brief narration.
- "In the following pages an attempt is made to record the prominent facts
with reference to the beginnings of colonial Maine. To the earlier
part of these beginnings, neither Sullivan in his History
of the District of Maine (1795), nor Williamson in his History of the State of Maine (1832), devoted much space.
When they wrote, the known and accessible sources of information concerning
those earlier undertakings were exceedingly scanty. Careful research,
however, especially in the last half century, has brought to light valuable
original materials for the history of that earlier period, and the discovery
of these materials has greatly enlarged our knowledge with reference both
to facts and persons." (pg. ix).
- The Trewlawny Papers "...constitute a treasure-house of information
with reference to business interests and other matters at Richmond's island
and vicinity for quite a number of years beginning with 1631." (pg. x).
Burrage, Henry S. (1926). George Folsom, John A. Poor,
and a century of historical research with reference to colonial Maine.
Maine Historical Society, Portland, ME.
Chamberlain, Joshua L. (1877). Maine: Her place in
history: Address delivered at the centennial exhibition, Philadelphia,
Nov. 4, 1876. Sprague, Owen & Nash, printers to the state, Augusta,
Chase, Edward E. (1926). Maine railroads. A. J.
Huston, Portland, ME.
Coe, Harris B., Ed. (1928). Maine: Resources, attractions,
and its people. 5 vols. NY, NY.
Coffin, Robert P. Tristram. (1937). Kennebec: Cradle
of Americans. Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., NY, NY.
DeCosta, Benjamin F. (1884). Norumbega
and its English explorers. In: Winsor, Justin, Ed. Narrative and critical
history of America. Vol 3. Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston, MA. IS.
DeCosta, B. F. (1890). Ancient Norumbega, or the voyages
of Simon Ferdinando and John Walker to the Penobscot River, 1579-1580. Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, NY.
- This whole chapter has been scanned and is available to read in our Norumbega information file.
Dermer, Thomas. (1841). Letter describing his passage from
Maine to Virginia, A.D. 1619. Collections of the New York Historical
Society, 2nd series, 1. pg. 343-354.
- See annotations in the Pre-Columbian
Dow, George Francis. (1922). Fort Western on the Kennebec:
The story of its construction in 1754 and what has happened there.
Gannett, Augusta, ME.
Drake, Samuel Adams. (1891). The pine-tree coast.
Estes & Lauriat, Boston, MA. IS.
Eaton, Cyrus. (1851). Annals of
the town of Warren in Knox County, Maine with the early history of St.
Georges, Broadbay and neighboring settlements on the Waldo Patent.
Masters, Smith and Co., Hallowell. Reprinted in 1887 by Masters &
Livermore, Hallowell and in 1968.
Elkins, L. Whitney. (1924). The story of Maine: Coastal
Maine. The Hillsborough Company, Bangor, ME.
- This text contains information pertinent to the history of Davistown Plantation
and coastal Maine. Most of the annotations are in our information
file for Warren, but other annotations are in the Davistown
Plantation bibliography, Native American:
Contemporary sources bilibliography and the information file on the Wreck
of the Grand Design on Long Ledge, Mount Desert Island.
- "1618-1621. Monhegan was at this time a general resort for European
fishermen and traders. A part of a crew of a vessel, sent out by Sir F.
Gorges, spent the winter of 1618 and '19 on this island. [These were, probably,
three men, the mutinous portion of the crew of Capt. Rocroft, a base fellow,
sent out by the Plymouth company for trade here, and who had lately seized
a French vessel as a prize at Monhegan. As a punishment, Rocroft landed
on the Main these men whom he accused of mutiny ; who, to escape the desolation
and exposure of a winter, houseless, on the banks of the Saco, reached
Monhegan and passed a miserable winter there in the deserted cabins of
a former population which had now, according to J. W. Thornton, Esq., retired
to Pemaquid." (pg. 19).
- In 1621 Monhegan is mentioned as a 'a settlement of some beginnings;' and
the following year provisions were obtained from the ships at this place,
by the infant settlement at Plymouth, then suffering great scarcity.
The Island seems not to have been destitute of inhabitants, after this,
down to the first Indian war. From this Island resort, so busy at
least in the warmer portions of the year, the attractive harbors of the
Main had even now drawn pioneer settlers; and some cabins for fishermen
and temporary residences were constructed at various points on the main
land between the rivers St. George and Saco. One of these earliest
settlers was John Brown; who fixed himself at New Harbor, near Pemaquid,
as early as 1621, and four years later obtained from the Indian Sagamores,
in consideration of 50 skins, a deed of the land between Broad Bay and
Damariscotta River to the extent of 25 miles into the country. He
and his descendants inhabited there till driven away by the Indians, and
claimed the land till the adjustment of 1812. (pg. 19).
- 1622. Thirty sail of vessels this year entered at Damariscove, whose
name Namaascovet, signifying a fish place, indicated its early importance
as a fishing spot. To this place also came Gov. Winslow, of the Plymouth
plantation, to draw supplies for his settlements famishing on the shores
of Cape Cod, who says, 'I found kind entertainment and good respect, with
a willingness to supply our wants, which was done, so far as able, and
would not take any bills for the same, but did what they could, freely,'
--which certainly indicates that the inhabitants of Damariscove were a
thrifty and generous people." (pg. 19 - 20).
- "1623. Fishermen and settlers also established themselves
abut this time at Sagadahoc, Merry-meeting, Cape Newagin, Pemaquid and
St. George's, as well as at Damariscove and other islands; though at St.
George's it is believed there were not as yet any permanent residents.
Adventurers from other nations also frequented the coast; and it is said
that the Dutch as early as 1607 and again in 1625 attempted to settle at
Damariscotta. Cellars and chimneys, apparently of great antiquity,
have been found in the town of Newcastle; and copper knives and spoons
of antique and singular fashion, are occasionally dug up with the supposed
Indian skeletons at the present day, indicating an early intercourse between
the natives of the two continents. Similar utensils and the foundations
of chimneys, now many feet under ground, have also been discovered on Monhegan,
as well as on Carver's island at the entrance of St. George's river, where
are said to be also the remains of a stone house." (pg. 20).
- "1688 Sir Edmund Andros made two expeditions to this quarter, in the first
of which he attempted to take possession of the country east of Penobscot,
but contented himself with plundering the Baron de Castine of his goods,
furniture, and ammunition. This affair irritating the Baron, led the tribe
over which his influence extended, to unite with the Abenaques in a second
Indian war, which in August, of that year, was begun by an attack on N.
Yarmouth. In September, New Dartmouth was burnt, and the inhabitants,
with the exception of two families taken prisoners, saved themselves only
by taking refuge in the fort. At the same time the fort and buildings
at that part of New Dartmouth called Sheepscot were also destroyed and
the settlements entirely broken up. The Dutch settlers, discouraged,
left the country; and both places, so lately and so long inhabited and
flourishing, lay waste about thirty years." (pg. 28 - 29).
- "1692-99. In 1692 the celebrated stronghold, Fort Wm. Henry, was
built of stone by Gov. Phips on the site of the old stockade at Pemaquid.
This, in 1696, was disgracefully surrendered by its commander, Capt. Chubb."
- "1700. The year 1700 was distinguished by the suppression of pirates
or buccaneers, who had for thirty years infested the American coast, and,
since the late war, become very troublesome to the eastern coasting and
fishing vessels. Their leaders, Kidd and Bradish, were sent to England
and executed. But the stories of hidden treasures guarded by the
ghosts of murdered slaves, which imagination and credulity have assigned
to almost every island and headland along the coast, long continued to
haunt the minds of the simple and try their courage and perseverance in
fruitless attempts to disinter them. Even at the present day, excited
by some idle dreamer, or designing wag, a party is occasionally seen in
solitary places near our river's mouth or on the neighboring islands, armed
with charm of mystic power digging by the dim lantern's light for that
treasure which, from some supposed omission of the rites required, still
eludes their grasp and disappears. (pg. 31 - 32).
- "In Cushing about half a mile north of the old stone garrison house of
Burton, and on the farm of the late Jacob Robinson, are the remains of
an ancient excavation, for some unknown purpose. The farm has been
in the Robinson family from the first settlement of 1735, and their tradition
is that their ancestor at his first coming found there these ruins of what
was presumed to be an underground house. It was about nine feet deep
and in one direction 30 feet wide at least, walled up with hewn timber,
and appeared to have been covered over, level with the surface of the ground.
It was situated on a point formed by the George's river on one side, and
a creek on the other side extending into the land and ending almost perpendicularly.
From this abrupt terminus of the creek, extended into the supposed house
a thoroughfare also walled with hewn timber, and covered high enough for
a man to walk erect and wide enough to haul up a boat therein. The
timber has decayed, but part of the excavation still remains; and there
are many theories as to its origin. Whether it was the rendezvous for pirates,
or the retreat from Indian enemies of some lone European settler before
the coming of our ancestors (who found it then in a state of decay) is
quite unknown. For our account of it we are indebted to Mr. I. J.
Burton, of Warren." (pg. 32).
Elwell. (1876). Portland and vicinity. Reprinted
by Greater Portland Landmarks, a facsimile of the original and later 1881
enlarged edition with a new forward.
Evens and Peck. (1880). History
of York County, Maine. Philadelphia.
Executive Committee of the Maine Commissioners. (1898). Maine at Gettysburg, Report of Maine Commissioners. The Lakeside Press, Portland, ME. IS.
Farnham, Mary Frances, Ed. (1901). The documentary
history of the state of Maine, 1603 - 1688. Vol. VII. Portland, ME.
Fillmore, R.B. (1924). Chronicles of Lincoln county.
Kennebec Journal Print Shop, Augusta, ME.
Ford, Henry A. (1882). History of Penobscot county.
Gardiner, Robert Hallowell. (1936). Early recollections
of Robert Hallowell Gardiner, 1782-1864. White & Horne Company,
Greene, Francis B. (1906). History of Boothbay, Southport and Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Loring, Short and Harmon, Portland, ME. IS.
Giles, John. (1869). Memoir of odd adventures, strange
deliverances, etc., in the captivity of John Giles. Boston, MA.
Godfrey, John E. (1876). The Pilgrims at Penobscot. Maine
Historical Society Collections. First Series, VII. pg. 25 - 37.
Gorges, F. (1890). Sir Ferdinando
Gorges and his province of Maine. In: Publications of the Prince Society.
Baxter, James P. Ed., Vol. 2. No. 19. Burt Franklin, NY, NY.
Gorges, Sir Fernando. (1622). A briefe relation of the
discovery and plantation of New England: and of sundry accidents therein
occurring, from the yeere of our lorde M.DC.VI to this present M.DC.XXII. Council of New England, Records of the council of New England, J. Haviland,
sold by W. Bladen. Reprinted in American Antiquarian Society, Preccedings,
1865-1867, pg. 53-181, April 24th, 1867.
- Also see "Gorges, Ferdinando. (1659). America painted to
the life. Nath. Brook., London, England."
- There are virtually dozens or reprints and citations of Gorges;
see below for one.
- As one of the principal backers of the Popham settlement
in 1607, Gorges notes, memoirs, letters, and other written memorabilia,
contain an immense amount of information about the early settlement of
Maine. Some of this information did not come to light until the late 19th
- No current single edition of Gorges writings has yet to be
- The Gorges quotation on the death of the Bashabes if frequently
cited by Maine writers such as Bourke and others and provides important
information about the indigenous communities living on the central Maine
coast at the time of Champlain's and George Waymouth's 1604 and 1605 visits.
Greenleaf, Moses. (1816). A statistical view of
the district of Maine : more especially with reference to the value and
importance of its interior. Addressed to the consideration of the legislators
of Massachusetts. Cummings and Hilliard, Boston, MA.
Hatch, Louis C., Ed. (1919). Maine: A history.
5 vols. American Historical Society, NY, NY.
Hoyt, Edmund S. (1883). Maine state year-book and legislative
manual, for the year 1882-83, from April 1, 1882, to April 1, 1883. Hoyt, Fogg & Donham, Portland, ME. IS.
Locke, John L. (1859). Sketches of the history of the town of Camden, Maine. Masters, Smith & Co., Hallowell, ME. IS.
Kingsbury, Henry D. and Deyo, Simeon L., Eds. (1892). Illustrated
history of Kennebec County, Maine, 1625-1892. Blake, NY, NY.
Kohl, J.G. (1869). Vol 1. History of the discovery
of Maine. In: Collections of the Maine Historical Society:
Second Series: History of the state of Maine. Willis, William,
Ed. Bailey and Noyes, Portland, ME. IS.
Lawrence, William. (1935). A life -- Robert Abbe. Bulletin
IV, The Robert Abbe Museum, Bar Harbor, ME. (out of print)
- See annotations in the special bibliography: Pre-Columbian Vistiors to North America.
Levett, Christopher.  (1988). A voyage
into New England, begun in 1623 and ended in 1624. In Maine in
the Age of Discovery: Christopher Levett's Voyage, 1623-1624 and A Guide
to Sources, Ed. by Roger Howell, Jr. and Emerson W. Baker, Maine Historical
Society, Portland, ME. pg. 33-68.
Maine Historical Society. (1831 - 1916). Collections
of the Maine Historical Society. First series, Vols. 1 to 10, 1831-1891;
Second series, Vols. 1 to 10, 1890-1899; Third series, Vols. 1 and 2, 1904,
1906; Documentary series, Vols. 1 to 24, 1869-1916.
McKeen, John. (1857). Remarks on the voyage of George Waymouth
to the coast of Maine, 1605. Collections of the Maine Historical Society. 5.
- This series of publications sponsored by the Maine Historical
Society constitute one of the most important sources of information about
pre-20th century Maine history. These series are an essential reference
for anyone studying any aspect of Maine history. Almost all important
19th and early 20th century Maine historians have published one or more
articles in these series, which are repeatedly referenced in this website.
- These series are not available through interlibrary loan,
though copies of individual articles may be provided by the Maine Historical
Society. They are however, readily available to visitors to the Maine
Historical Society Library on Congress St. in Portland. Most of the
series are located on the right hand side wall of the library and may be
accessed by any member of the public. Browsing through the wide variety
of articles in each volume is one of the great pleasures of visiting the
Maine Historical Society.
Popham, Captain George. (1857). Letter
to King James I (written from Fort St. George on December 13, 1607). Collections
of the Maine Historical Society 5. pg. 359-360.
Prentiss, Elizabeth. (1877). Pemaquid:
A story of old times in New England. A.D.F. Randolph & Co., NY,
Pressey, Henry A. (1902). Water powers of the State
of Maine. Water Supply Paper No. 69. Government Printing Office, Washington,
Prince, George. (1860). Rosier's
narrative on Waymouth's voyage to the coast of Maine, in 1605, complete
with remarks by George Prince showing the river explored to have been Georges
River. Sister Maries Press, Bath, ME.
Pring, Martin. (1906). A voyage set out from the citie of
Bristol...for the discoverie of the North part of Virginia. In:
Burrage, H.S. Early English and French voyages: Chiefly from Hakluyt,
1534 - 1608. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY. Reprinted in 1934
and 1959 by Barnes & Noble, Inc.
- A particularly notable essay on Maine history; George Prince contended
that Rosier's narrative could only apply to the Georges River and not to
the Kennebec or the Penobscot. Previous historians, including William
Williamson and Rufus King Sewall had contended that George Waymouth had
explored the Kennebec River. This location however did not match
the description given in the narrative, particularly with respect to the
nearby location of the mountains towards which Waymouth and his men attempted
to reach on a hot summers day. Since the publication of this edition
of Rosier's narrative, Prince's interpretation of Waymouth's voyage has
been accepted by all Maine historians with the notable exception of Rufus
King Sewall, who had never in his lifetime acknowledged his error.
Proper, Ida Sedgwick. (1930). Monhegan,
the cradle of New England. The Southworth Press, Portland, ME. IS.
- A particularly interesting description of the early days of Monhegan Island.
- Recently reprinted and available at Borders.
- See our comments and extensive quotations from this text in the essay Tales
of Ancient Monhegan, information files on Monhegan
Island and the Italian Zeno's explorations
in the Ancient Pemaquid section and annotations in the Ancient
Pemaquid and Pre-Columbian bibliographies.
Rice, George Wharton. (1938). The Shipping days of Old Boothbay: 1775-1917. The Southworth-Anthoensen Press, Portland, ME. IS.
Robinson, Reuel. (1907). History of Camden and Rockport, Maine. Camden Publishing Company, Camden, ME. IS.
Rowe, William H. (1929). Shipbuilding days in Casco Bay,
1727-1890: Being footnotes to the maritime history of Maine. Yarmouth,
ME. Reprinted in 1966 by Bond Wheelwright Co., Freeport, ME.
Rowe, William Hutchinson. (1937). Ancient North Yarmouth and Yarmouth, Maine: 1636-1936. Southworth-Anthoensen Press, Yarmouth, ME. IS.
Sawtelle, William Otis. (1932). Historic trails and
waterways of Maine. Maine Development Commission, Augusta, ME.
Sewall, Rufus King. (1859). Ancient dominions
of Maine. Elisha Clark and Company, Bath, ME. IS.
Sewall, Rufus King. (1876). Popham's town of Fort St. George. Collections
of the Maine Historical Society. Vol. VII. pg. 293 - 322.
- See the annotations for this text
in the Native Americans: Principal sources bibliography.
- One of our favorite regional antiquarians.
Sewall, Rufus King. (1895). Ancient voyages to the
western continent: Three phases of history on the coast of Maine. The
Knickerbocker Press, NY, NY. IS.
Sewall, Rufus King. (1896). Centennial:
Memorial services of old Alna meeting-house: Alna, Maine, September
11, 1889. Emerson, Steam Printer, Wiscasset, ME. IS.
- See the annotations for this text
in the Native Americans: Special topics bibliography.
Sewall, Rufus King. (1896). Pemaquid,
its genesis, discovery, name and colonial relations to New England.
Lincoln County Historical Society, Lincoln County, ME. X.
- This extremely scarce pamphlet celebrates the 100th anniversary of the
Puritan meeting house at Alna, formerly a part of Pownalboro, which was
first broken into the towns of Dresden and New Millford in 1794.
New Millford included both what later became Alna in 1811 at the head of
the tide and the falls above Wiscasset on the Sheepscot River, and Wiscasset
Point now the town of Wiscasset. One of the most beautiful pieces
of architecture in Maine and one of only two surviving examples of Puritan
meeting house architecture in Maine, the other is at Walpole, Maine, and
still stands today; the Alna meeting house is located south of the milling
sites at the head of the tide on the Sheepscot River. This obscure
publication, not intended for widespread circulation, and now among the
rarities of Maine history, contains a paragraph or two of background information
about the early history of the "eastern parts" of the province of
Maine, which are worth remembering, quoting, analyzing and discussing and
which reference one of the most interesting unsolved questions of Maine's
- In this small pamphlet, Sewall notes the background history of the Alna
meeting house including the French attempt to settle St. Croix Island and
the English attempt to settle Fort Popham. He also notes the construction
of the first Puritan meeting house in Plymouth in 1622. Using William Bradford's History
of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646 as his fundamental source, Sewall
recounts the difficulties of the first settlers of Plymouth "Turning back
to the incidents which led to the erection of this Puritanic relic of church
service, at the 'fords and mills' of the upper tide-waters of the Sheepscot,
now Alna, we find, that in the spring of 1621, the Pilgrims of Plymouth
had lost half their number by want and disease. Disease, want, and
terror of savage surroundings, had so demoralized the survivors that despair
pervaded the settlement. In the extremes of their distress and calamity,
but six or seven could be found able to help the sick and impotent.
In this emergency, suddenly the cry was heard in broken English, in the
lanes of Plymouth, 'Much welcome Englishmen!'" (pg. 13).
- "A tall straight man, hair on his head black, long behind, straight before,
and none on his face at all ; with a leathern girdle about his loins, and
a fringe a span long or more, with a bow and two arrows in his hand, the
one headed and the other not, boldly walked by the cabin doors of the hamlet,
uttering these words of good cheer. The effect was most salutary.
It was Sa-mas-set (Samosset of Pilgrim history) the savage Lord of Pemaquid.
His coming and presence in this emergency, among the sick and dying Pilgrims,
it is said, was as the vision of an angel. He told the Pilgrims all
about the 'Eastern parts' whence he came and where he lived. This
seems to have been the first definite knowledge Plymouth had of Maine ;
and it is related to Monhegan, Pemaquid and the notable Sagadahoc, afterward
called 'Eastern Parts' by the Pilgrims." (pg. 14).
- "The Pilgrims had lived some sixteen or seventeen months on 'Plymouth Rock'
and struggled through a second winter and had become reduced in number
and supplies. The hamlet was sorely distressed. Entirely destitute
of bread, they had lived on clams and other shell fish until all were greatly
debilitated. When planting was finished, their victuals were spent
; and at night they did not know where to have a bit in the morning, having
neither bred or corn for three or four months together. It was an
emergency of starvation." (pg. 14).
- "Suddenly a boat was seen crossing the mouth of the Bay, and to disappear
behind the head-lands. A signal gun was fired. The boat altered
her course and headed into the Bay. This boat was a tender
of the 'Ship Sparrow' from the Pemaquid dependency of 'Damariscove' in
Maine. Seven men composed her crew ; and a letter from Maine was
her cargo. This waif from the 'eastern parts,' brought news where
bread could be found." (pg. 14).
- "The Sparrow's boat's crew piloted the way, and Governor Bradford manned
the Plymouth Shallop and cleared for the 'eastern parts' to buy bread.
She safely reached the shores of Samasset's home, where thirty ships were
harboring for freight to England. The representatives of the hungry
Pilgrims were kindly received, and a Shallop load of bread furnished, without
money and without price, which was a very seasonable blessing and supply,
to the famished Pilgrims, who, by this incident, learned the resources
of, and the way to the corn-fields and beaver haunts and fishing grounds
of Maine." (pg. 15).
- "The fact was utilized at once. The knowledge thus gained was improved
by the Pilgrims, in securing possession, east and west of Pemaquid, of
the river banks, at their mouths, for trade. Good crops of corn thereafter
grown and harvested at Plymouth, the Pilgrims sent their Shallop loaded,
into the Kennebec. The success of the voyage was a cargo of beaver
pelts. This proved an opening, to Plymouth acquisition of land title,
on both shores of the Kennebec, 'fifteen miles wide,' by purchase of the
Indians, January 13, 1629." (pg. 15).
- "In the meantime the commonwealth of Massachusetts had absorbed the Pilgrim
territory, and also the ancient 'eastern parts,' and converted them into
the 'District of Maine ;' and imposed its Puritan theories of the fundamental
law of its civil polity..." (pg. 15).
- "At the site of the milling industries of old Pownalboro, an industrious
and enterprising population had become resident near the falls and shoals
or fords of the Sheepscot, before 'New Millford' was incorporated ; and
as a Precinct the forces of Puritan religion and law had taken effect ;
an in 1788 secured a site ; and prior to 1790 erected a 'meeting house,'
by force of a Pownalboro tax, under constitutional laws ; and this structure
is that House,--an outgrowth of Massachusetts church architecture, as well
as in the form suited to social and public worship of God." (pg. 16).
- Sewall's obscure publication raises numerous questions: What were 30 ships
loading in this region in 1621? What is the source of this information?
How accurate is it? Was the free bread received by the Pilgrims a
commodity brought over from England by coastal traders, as alleged by _____?
Sewall refers to the falls at Alna as an ancient milling site. Is
there any chance that a grist mill was already located here in 1621?
If not, when was the first grist mill erected at this site? Sewall
implies the milling sites at the falls in Alna are very ancient, pre-dating
the establishment of Pownalboro. Were Native Americans growing corn
and providing cornmeal for bread in barter for European trade goods at
the time these 30 ships were in the area? Where were these 30 ships
located? Only at Monhegan? Isn't there some indication that
the oral history of the early English settlers indicates these ships were
loading (what products -- furs, fish, lumber?) not only at Monhegan but
within the complicated tidewater estuaries, which included Wiscasset and
Alna, formerly the probable location of the Indian village of Nebamocago
(Dean Snow, The Archaeology
of New England)?
- Champlain visited Wiscasset and the Sagamore Meteourmite in 1605 and found
Native Americans of a radically different lifestyle from the Micmacs and
Passamaquoddies living to the east; Champlain notes these Native Americans
grew corn. Were the Native American communities in this area the
source of the meal used to make the Pilgrims bread or was the meal imported
from England by the coastal traders known to have frequented Monhegan and
the central Maine coast in such great numbers prior to the arrival of the
- It is interesting to note not only Seawall's reference to the cornfields
of the coast of Maine, but also his reference to the often referred to
"Eastern parts" that refers not to Eastport, Lubec or Jonesport but to
the Pemaquid region as the obvious center of trade, commerce and horticultural
activities. All contemporary historians agree and continuing contemporary
archaeological research confirms that the tidewater of the Kennebec River
as well as rivers east to the Penobscot (Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Medomak,
Georges) were the central focus of English attempts to establish trading
posts with the Indians. Nothing in this body of written and oral
history and archaeological research efforts provides the least evidence
that the Native American communities who inhabited this area prior to the
great epidemic of 1617 were the nomadic hunting and gathering Indians whose
homeland was the St. Croix and St. Johns river drainage, as now contended
by Bourque in Twelve thousand
years: American Indians in Maine.
- This publication is now in the rare books collection of the Davistown Museum
Shipton, Clifford K. (1937). The New England Frontier. New
England Quarterly. 20. pg. 25-36.
Sibley, John Langdon. (1851). A History of the town of Union. Benjamin B. Mussey and Co., Boston, MA. IS.
Spencer, Wilber D. (1930). Pioneers on Maine rivers:
With lists to 1651. Lakeside Printing Co., Portland, ME. Reprinted
in 1973 by Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore.
Sprague, John Francis. (1906). Sebastian Ralé:
A Maine tragedy of the eighteenth century. Heintzemann Press, Boston,
Sprague, John Francis. (1915). Baron de Saint Castin.
Smith and Sale, printers, Portland, ME.
Sprague, John Francis. (1917). Sprague's Journal of Maine History, August, September, October 1917. John Francis Sprague, Dover, ME. IS.
Starkey, Glenn Wendell. (1920). Maine, its history,
resources and government. Silver, Burdett and Company, NY, NY.
Sullivan, James. (1795). History
of the District of Maine. I. Thomas and E.T. Andrews, Boston, MA.
Reprinted in 1970 by Knowlton & McLeary, Farmington, ME, for the Maine
State Museum, Augusta, ME. IS.
Sylvester, Herbert M. (1908). Romance
of the Maine coast in five vols. I. Romance of Casco Bay. II. Romance of
old York. III. Sokoki Trail. IV. Ancient Pemaquid. V. The land of St. Castin. Stanhope Press, Boston. IS.
- "The age of Sullivan, then -- the age of the American
Revolution and the early Republic -- was among other things an age of romance.
And few writers even of the official 'Romantic' age offered such a picturesque,
imaginative, inspired accounting as Sullivan provided in his history of
Maine. ...for an un-self-conscious expression of the romantic nationalism
of the period, one can do no better than read Sullivan." (Clark,
1977, pg. 54).
Thayer, Henry O., Ed. (1892). The Sagadahoc Colony comprising
the relations of a voyage into New England. Gorges Society, Portland,
ME. Reprinted in 1970 by Research Reprints, NY, NY.
- Florid, but interesting. Numerous inaccuracies have reduced the importance
of this interesting writer.
Thayer, Henry O. (1895). Beginnings
at Pemaquid. Collections and Proceedings of the Maine Historical Society. Second
series, Vol. VI. pg. 62-84.
Thayer, Henry O. (1906). Ancient Pemaquid. Collections
of the Maine Historical Society. Third Series, Vol. II. pg. 374 - 388.
- In this article Thayer thoroughly rejects Rufus King Sewall's
theory of Popham Colony settlers removal to Pemaquid after 1607.
- "A definite stage of Pemaquid history begins with purchase, with legal
forms, from the honored Somerset, or Samoset, and Unnongoit, Sagamores,
in 1625. The purchaser, whose name enters this pioneer conveyance
of New England soil, had already been so long resident as to be styled
John Brown of New Harbor." (pg. 83-84).
- "Includes 'The Relation of a Voyage Unto New England,' a manuscript found
among the papers of Sir Ferdinando Gorges; an extensive and very erudite
discussion of the literature bearing upon the Sagadahoc colony, beginning
with Purchas, his Pilgrimes of 1614; and brief essays on other topics
connected with this venture, including the inevitable Popham genealogy."
(Clark, pg. 17).
- A continuing debunking of Rufus King Sewall's
theory of the Kingdom of Pemaquid.
Thornton, J. Wingate. (1857). Ancient Pemaquid, an historical
review. Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Vol. V. pg.
139 - 306.
Thurston, David. (1855). A Brief history of Winthrop, 1764 to 1855. Brown Thurston, Portland, ME. IS.
Warren, Fred M. translator. (n.d.).
Extracts from the letters of the Jesuit missionary in Maine, Father P.
Biard: From Carayon's lettres ined. 1612-1626. Read before the Maine
Historical Society, February 26, 1891. pg. 411. X.
Wasson, George S. (1932). Sailing days on the Penobscot:
The river and bay as they were in the old days. Marine Research Society,
Salem, MA. Reprinted in 1970 by Macdonald and Jane's, London. IS.
- "Returning from that river St. John our way was directed toward the Armouchiquoys.
For this two chief reasons actuated M. de Biancourt; the first, to receive
news of the English and to know whether he could get the better of them;
the second to barter for grain with the Armouchiquoys, to help us pass
the winter without starving, in case we received no relief from France."
- "Morning come, we continued our way up river. They accompanying us,
said to us if we wished some piousquemen (that is their wheat),
we could easily turn to the right, and not go up river with great labor
and danger; that by turning to the right, through the arm of the river
which was shown us we could in a few hours reach the great sachem Meteourmite,
who would supply us with everything; that they would act as guides to us,
for they too were going to make him a visit." (pg. 420).
- "Meteourmite sent some of his people to apologize for the insolence of
the morning, affirming that the whole disturbance had come not from him,
but from the Armouchiquoys; that they had also stolen from us an ax and
a gamelle (a large wooden bowl), which utensil he returned to us." (pg.
- "Pentegoët is a very fine river and can be likened to the French Garonne.
...You cannot divine what is the Norembega of the ancients if it is not
this for otherwise both the others and myself inquiring after this word
and place have never been able to learn anything." (pg. 424).
- "We then, having gone up stream three leagues or more, encountered another
fine river called Chiboctous, which comes from the northeast to empty into
this great Pentegoët. At the meeting of the two rivers there
was the finest gathering of savages that I have yet seen. There were
eighty canoes and a long-boat, eighteen huts and about three hundred souls.
The most prominent chief was called Betsabés, a prudent and conservative
man." (pg. 424).
- "And we also, very glad to be in a friendly country; for among the Etchemins,
such as are those here, and the Souriquois, such as are those of Port-Royal,
we are not on our guard any more than we are among our own domestics and,
God be thanked, we have not yet fared ill by it." (pg. 424).
- "To the west and north live the Etheminquois, from the river St. John to
the River Pentegoët and even to the river Kinibéqui.
The latter has its mouth under 43º 3'. ...They are nomads, haunting
the woods and much scattered, because they live by the chase, by the fruits
of the earth and by fishing." (pg. 426).
Wells, Walter. (1869). The water power of Maine. Augusta, ME.
Whittemore, Edwin Carey. (1902). The Centennial history of Waterville. Executive Committee of the Centennial Celebration, Waterville, ME. IS.
Wilder, Nat, Jr. (1910). A royal tragedy: When kings
and savages ruled. Fireside Publishing Co., NY, NY. IS.
Williamson, William D. (1832). The history of the state of Maine; from its first discovery,
A. D. 1602, to the separation, A. D. 1820, inclusive, Volume I and II.
Glazier, Masters & Co., Hallowell, ME. Reprinted by The Cumberland
Press, Inc., Freeport, ME. IS(2).
Willis, William. (1831-1833). The history of Portland,
from its first settlement: With notices of the neighbouring towns, and
of the changes of government in Maine. Two volumes. Printed by Day,
Fraser & Co., Portland, ME.
- See our extensive annotations of this text in the Native Americans: Principal sources bibliography.
Wood, Richard G. (1935). A history
of lumbering in Maine, 1820-1861. University Press [of Maine], Orono,
ME. Reprinted on April 10, 1961 in The Maine Bulletin, Maine
Studies No. 33. IS.
Woodbury, Charles Levi. (1891). Pemaquid
and Monhegan: Address of Hon. Charles Levi Woodbury of Boston, before
the Hyde Park Historical Society, February 26, 1891. Hyde Park Historical
Society, MA. X.
- We have excerpted so many quotes from this book that we have placed them
into two information files: lumbering in Maine and potash.