Volume 4: Norumbega Reconsidered

Controversy surrounds the question of the ethnic identity and historical significance of the indigenous Native American communities occupying the coastal region of Maine between the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers at the time of European contact and settlement (1600 - 1620).  Were these Native Americans "Etchemins" of Passamaquoddy - Maliseet descent as shown on French maps of the time, or an Abenaki community known as Wawenocs as recounted by English observers and writers?  What links, if any, exist between these communities and the narration of the Land of Mawooshen (Purchas, 1625) and the meaning and significance of Norumbega (Baker, 1994)?  Commentary on the context and substance of this ethnohistoric conundrum is followed by a guest essay by avocational historian Kerry Hardy and annotated bibliographic citations giving voice to the wide range of opinion and viewpoints about Maine's ethnohistoric past.

Native American Artifact Exhibits at the Davistown Museum

The Coffin Stream Assemblage
Artifact List

The Wapanucket Hoard
Artifact List

Other Native American Artifacts
Artifact List

Historical Chronologies
Chronology I: Prehistoric Periods
Chronology II: Late Archaic and Ceramic Period Chronology for Coastal Maine

A Native American Oral History

Rosier's Relation of George Weymouth's 1605 Voyage

Rufus King Sewall's 1896 Article on Mavooshen

Pathways and Canoe Routes of Native Americans
Prehistoric Native American Trails in Davistown and the Norumbega Bioregion
Native Trail's Maps

Principal References
Other Contemporary Publications and Journal Articles
Pre-Columbian Visitors to North America
History: Journals & Newsletters

Abbe Museum: Bar Harbor, 04609, (207) 288- 3519, fax (207) 288-8979. http://www.abbemuseum.org

Friends of the Abenaki (NE-DO-BA) http://www.avcnet.org/ne-do-ba/menu_his.shtml

  • Abenaki culture and history, focused on western Maine.
Hudson Museum: University of Maine, Orono, (207) 581-1901. http://www.umaine.edu/hudsonmuseum Native Trails, Inc.: PO Box 240, Waldoboro, ME 04572, (207) 832-5255. http://www.nativetrails.org

Penobscot Nation Museum: 5 Downstreet St., Indian Island, Maine 04468, (207) 827-4153. http://www.penobscotnation.org/museum/indox.htm

SEBAGO—PRESUMPSCOT ANTHROPOLOGY PROJECT: Lakes Region of Maine: Mawooshen Research. http://www.lakesregionofmaine.gen.me.us/sebago_anthro/index.html

Waponahki Museum and Resource Center: Pleasant Point, PO Box 295, Perry, ME 04667, (207) 853-4001.

Other Interesting Native American Sites

Abenaki History: Lee Sultzman. http://tolatsga.org/aben.html

The Abenaki Languagehttp://www.hmt.com/abenaki/language.htm

American Language Reprint Series:  Evolution Publishing, c/o Arx Publishing, LLC, 10 Canal Street, Suite, 231, Bristol PA 19007-3900, (215) 781-8600. http://www.evolpub.com/ALR/ALRhome.html

  • Dedicated to the preservation of early Native American linguistic records
Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People: COWASS North America Inc., PO Box 554, Franklin, MA 02038. http://www.cowasuck.org/ First Nations Seeker: Directory of North American Indian portal websites

Interactive ALR (American Language Reprints) http://www.evolpub.com/interactiveALR/home.html

  • "The Interactive ALR is a powerful online resource for the comparative study of Native American languages."
  • "After December 31, 2003, the full functionality of the database will be available via subscription. Special reduced rates are available to recognized tribal institutions and members of SSILA."
Journal of Prophecy of Native People Worldwide http://www.wovoca.com/
  • Well worth a visit for information on Native Americans, plus links to other sites.
Library and Archives of Canadahttp://www.collectionscanada.ca

Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center: 110 Pequot Trail, PO Box 3180, Mashantucket, CT 06339-3180, (800) 411-9671. http://www.mashantucket.com

Native American Genealogy: http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/

Native Languages of the Americas: PO Box 130562, St. Paul MN 55113-0005. http://www.native-languages.org/ National NAGPRA:  National Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW (2253), Washington, D.C. 20240, 202-354-2201. http://www.cr.nps.gov/nagpra/INDEX.HTM
  • "The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) is a Federal law passed in 1990."
NativeTech http://www.nativetech.org/
  • "Dedicated to disconnecting the term 'primitive' from perceptions of Native American technology and art."
North American Indian Center of Boston: 105 South Huntington Avenue, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130, (617) 232-0343. http://www.bostonindiancenter.org/

The Northern Plains Archive Project:  519 Otis Ave. N., Saint Paul, Minnesota 55104. http://www.hiddenhistory.com/home1.htm

Mikmaq.com http://www.mikmaq.com/

Native American Navigator: Columbia University. http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/k12/naha/nanav.html

  • "An interface for geographical, historical, topical and keyword-based student inquiry on topics related to Native American history and culture in the United States."
Mocotagan: A nice website describing crooked knives. http://members.aol.com/mocotagan/index.html

Northeast Wigwam: A Short History of the Waponahkiyik Nations. http://www.newigwam.com/wwwboard/history/messages/24.html

Oyate: "A Native organization working to see that our lives and histories are portrayed honestly, and so that all people will know our stories belong to us." http://www.oyate.org

  • This site includes a list of books to avoid, ones that contain incorrect stereotypes.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/default.html
  • Located at Harvard University, this site includes lists of several archival collections, both photographic and paper.
The Wabanaki Confederacy: People of the Dawn http://www.wabanakiconfederacy.com/
  • "Information regarding events for the Wabanaki Confederacy, specifically for actual members of our Wabanaki Nations."
WWW Virtual Library - American Indians: Index of Native American Resources on the Internet. http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources/
  • A site full of great links to Native American stuff.