The Davistown Museum
The Ancient Dominions of Maine: An Archaeology of Tools

Tool Steel Alloy Types
The Industrial Revolution was characterized by the sudden proliferation of steel alloys of every kind and description. Once the chemistry of
steel production was understood, increasingly sophisticated production techniques and alloy combinations resulted in tools manufactured to
the specifications most suitable to the use of the tool. In many cases, the markings on the tool provide a description of the alloy and steel
types used in the manufacture of the tool. These tools in the Davistown Museum collection are listed by their steel or alloy types.


Chrome Vanadium
Wrench 33002T9 bio photo MH
Drop-forged alloy steel, 10 3/8" long, signed on handle "Heller Brothers Newark. NJ. USA 4-14-25. 11-12-29" and on verso "10
Heller & Brothers was one of America's foremost manufacturers of blacksmith tools, 1866 - 1899. DATM (Nelson 1999, 374) indicates they
changed their name in 1899 to the Heller Brothers Company. In 1955 they became the Heller Tool Co.
The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools Wrenches
Wrench 42801T22 MH
Drop-forged alloy steel, 5 1/2" long, signed "1/4 Brake Eccentric Wrench 3/16 Herbrand Van Chrome No. 195 Made in USA".
This is an unusual wrench utilizing alloy steel characteristic of tools made beginning in the early 20th century with the advent of electric blast
The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools Wrenches
Box wrench 31908T41 photo photo MH
Drop-forged chromium vanadium steel, 9 3/4" long, signed "11/16 PERFECTION NoP-27 5/8" and on the other side "CHROMIUM
Chromium vanadium is one of the many variants of tempered alloy steel.
The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools Wrenches

Hardened Tool Steel
Chisel 33002T14 TT
Hardened tool steel with wood handle, 7 3/4" long, 3 3/4" handle, 15/16" wide blade, signed "Hardened tool steel ______ MADE IN USA", c.
1900 (?).
This is a generic early 20th century tool.
The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools Woodworking: Edge Tools

Malleable Iron
Feathers (2) and wedge 81602T10 MH
Forged malleable iron, 11 1/2" long, 1 5/16" wide wedge; 12" long, 1 1/4" wide feathers, unsigned.
These are the largest set of feathers and wedge ever noted by the curator. These are used for really heavy cutting and splitting, probably in
the coastal granite quarries.
Historic Maritime IV (1840-1865): The Early Industrial Revolution Quarrying Tools
C-clamp 33002T10 MH
Drop-forged malleable iron, 3 3/8" long, 2 1/4" throat, signed "Malleable Iron Unbreakable Made in USA", c. 1950.
This is a generic 20th century tool common to every workshop. The malleable iron in this tool is also called low-carbon steel; the production
of malleable iron originates with the puddling process and became a common commodity with specific tool type applications once the
Siemens open hearth steel production process allowed controlled mass production of large quantities of durable ductile malleable iron (low-
carbon steel).
The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools Miscellaneous Tools
Screwdriver 14302T20 MH
Malleable steel, size unknown, unsigned.
This three pronged driver is nicely beveled.
Historic Maritime IV (1840-1865): The Early Industrial Revolution Miscellaneous Tools


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