| Previous Part of This Section | Top of This Section | Next Section
B. Canadian Nuclear Power Plants

RADNET presently has no reports detailing releases of anthropogenic radioactivity from Canadian nuclear power plants. A variety of safety issues, however have been in the news (Vancouver Sun, Jan. 10, 1997; Toronto Star, Jan. 17, 1997; Bangor Daily News, Jan. 18-19). A primary safety concern has been the discovery of corrosion in a number of feeder pipes at the Point Lepreau Plant in New Brunswick which carry pressurized superheated water used for cooling the reactor. Some pipes are corroded as much as 30%; the corrosion rate on these pipes is reported to be 4 times the design rate (BDN pg. A9). Other problems previously discovered include sagging tubes that hold uranium fuel bundles in the reactor core, a continuing leak of radioactive water inside the reactor unrelated to the problem of the pressure tubes, and the failure to replace a reactor port shield after routine maintenance allowing some radiation to escape within the plant (BDN pg. A9). Another interesting incident which occurred in Oct. 1995 at the Point Lepreau facility was the sucking into a 9,000 horsepower hot water transfer pump of a wooden pipe cutter inadvertently left near the pipe intake; damage for repairs from this one incident was 7.4 million dollars; the Jan. 18-19, 1997 article in the Bangor Daily News indicates that "2.2 lb. of wood and 30 metal screws remain inside the cooling system probably lodged against the uranium fuel." Needless to say Point Lepreau officials say the debris in the reactor core is of no significance.

Point Lepreau is only one of 22 Canadian (Candu) reactors; initial reports indicate the corrosion problems could be endemic to all of these reactors. Candu officials indicate corrosion is occurring at the rate of .1 to .15 mm per year and "at that rate it would take 4 or 5 years before the pipes need to be replaced" (Xinhua News Agency, Jan. 10, 1997, via Lexis-Nexis). One other Canadian reactor, Gentilly 2, is located directly upwind from Maine just south of Quebec, and along with Point Lepreau and the Seabrook facility is one of the 3 other source points of anthropogenic radioactivity having the most likely potential to impact the bioregion of Maine in addition to the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant.

The Canadian Candu reactors have been suggested as a likely candidate for recycling US and Russian weapons grade plutonium by burning the plutonium after it has been mixed with uranium fuel (MOX). This scenario, recently proposed by the Dept. of Energy as a politically necessary disposal technology in addition to vitrification, would require modification of the Canadian reactors (as well as any American reactors used in this scheme). Unfortunately, the use of plutonium in the MOX fuel program creates larger amounts of radioactive waste which contain almost half the original plutonium (Toronto Star, Jan. 17, 1997). The discovery of extensive corrosion in Canadian reactors does nothing to generate confidence in the DOE plutonium MOX disposal scheme which will necessitate approximately 30 years of Candu reactor operation for several or more reactors, in the case that Canada participates in the proposed DOE plutonium disposal program.
C. Russian Nuclear Power Plants

The subject of the unsafe Russian RBMK and other nuclear power plants is a Pandora's box of radiological disasters in waiting and worthy of a separate net site in itself. The sixteen remaining RBMK reactors along with other older reactors in Eastern Europe are the most likely sources of future hemispheric wide releases of radioactive contamination. Several interesting safety reports on RBMK reactors in the Soviet Union and the sponsorship of their operation or return to service by U.S. interests will be posted here when they become available; however Russian nuclear power plant effluents, as well as the waste inventories and radioactive releases from other nuclear power plants throughout the world are not the focus of RADNET due to a lack of personnel and resources, and citations of research pertaining to these many source points will not be listed unless an unusual release of radioactivity is reported to RADNET. Links to European and other nuclear information sources documenting the effluents and public safety controversies pertaining to these very dangerous plants can be found in RADNET Section 13, RADLINKS, Part 2B. Persons and/or organizations with information pertaining to any nuclear power facilities outside of the United States please contact RADNET by email or surface mail if you wish your site listed in RADLINK world wide web links (RADNET Section 13).

Copinger, D.A. (1995). Second ANS Workshop on the Safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants. Nuclear Safety. 36(2). pg. 218-234.

Egorov, Nikolai N., Novikov, Vladimir M., Parker, Frank L. and Popov, Victor K., Eds. (June 2000). The radiation legacy of the Soviet nuclear complex: An analytical overview. Earthscan Publications Ltd., United Kingdom. IS.
D. Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

von Hippel, Frank and Jones, Suzanne. (September 19, 1997). The slow death of the fast breeder; plutonium nuclear power plants. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 5(53). pg. 46.

E. European Nuclear Power Plants

(January 19, 1999). Nuclear power: German plan to phase out nuclear power raises questions across Europe. Europe Environment. Section No. 537.

Holgye, Z. and Filgas, R. (1993). Monitoring of the release of transuranium elements in airborne effluents from V-1 nuclear power plant at Jalovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia. J. Environ. Radioactivity. 120(3). pg. 191-200.
1990 NPP Bohunice, Czechoslovakia Annual discharge: 238Pu 19,600 Bq
1990 NPP Bohunice, Czechoslovakia Annual discharge: 239,240Pu 15,100 Bq
1990 NPP Bohunice, Czechoslovakia Annual discharge: 241Am 9,400 Bq
1990 NPP Bohunice, Czechoslovakia Annual discharge: 242Cm 44,300 Bq
1990 NPP Bohunice, Czechoslovakia Annual discharge: 244Cm 9,500 Bq
Mattson, S., Finck, R. and Nilsson, M. (1980). Distribution of activation products from Barseback nuclear power plant (Sweden) in the marine environment. Temporal and spatial variations as established by seaweed. Environmental Pollution. 1. pg. 105-115.
June 1977 Barseback, Sweden Fucus vesiculosus 60Co 1000 Bq/kg
Winkler, R., Hotzl, H. and Winkler, R. (1977). Measurements of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: International Radiation Protection Association, Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress 2. Paris. pg. 251.
G. Biological Monitoring

Also see the extensive citations in RAD7: Plume Pulse Pathways.

Boelskifte, S. (1985). The applications of Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator of 60Co concentrations in the Danish Straits. J. Environ. Radioactivity. 2. pg. 215-227.
June 1, 1984 Danish Strait Seaweed 60Co 3.91 Bq/kg dry weight

Bowen, V.T. (1981). The environmental behavior of transuranic nuclides released from water cooled nuclear power plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.
June 25, 1975 Bailey's Cove, Wiscasset ME Seaweed 137Cs 27,700 d.p.m./kg dry (460 Bq/kg)
June 25, 1975 Bailey's Cove, Wiscasset ME Seaweed 134Cs 16,000 d.p.m./kg (266 Bq/kg)
June 23, 1977 Plymouth, MA - 1 mile N. of plant Seaweed 239,240Pu 2.72 d.p.m./kg fresh weight
Francis, C.W. (1973). Plutonium mobility in soil and uptake in plants. J. Environ. Quality. 2(1). pg. 67-70. Hess, C.T., Smith, C.W. and Price, A.H. (1977). A mathematical model of the accumulation of radionuclides by oysters (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor to include major biological parameters. Health Physics. 33. pg. 121-130.
August 1974 Montsweag Estuary, Wiscasset ME Oysters 58Co 875 pCi/kg
Noshkin, V.E, Eagle, R.J., Dawson, J.M., Brunk, J.L. and Wong, K.M. (1984). Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco nuclear generating plant. UCID-20295. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
Apr-Aug 1984 Rancho Seco, CA Bluegill stomach 134Cs 16,600 pCi/kg
Apr-Aug 1984 Rancho Seco, CA Bluegill stomach 137Cs 37,800 pCi/kg
Apr-Aug 1984 Rancho Seco, CA Bluegill stomach 58Co 15,000 pCi/kg
Apr-Aug 1984 Rancho Seco, CA Bluegill stomach 110mAg 6,900 pCi/kg
Apr-Aug 1984 Rancho Seco, CA Bluegill flesh 137Cs 13,000 pCi/kg
Simpson, H.J., Olsen, C.R., Trier, R.M. and Williams, S.C. (1976). Man-made radionuclides and sediments in the Hudson River Estuary. Science. 194. pg. 179-183.
Aug. 1973 NY City Hudson River Sediment 239,240Pu 69.2 pCi/kg

| Next Part of This Section | Top of This Section | Next Section |

| Index | Introduction | Guide | Accidents | Definitions | Radionuclides | Protection Guidelines | Plumes | Baseline Data | Dietary Intake | Chernobyl | Source Points | Maine Yankee | Links | Bibliography | Alerts | Sponsor |