|2. BASELINE DATA: RISO NATIONAL LABORATORY|
The Riso National Laboratory in Roskilde Denmark has compiled
a comprehensive data base of unclassified information about the dietary
intake of radionuclides. In providing the following summary of Riso reports,
RADNET would like to acknowledge and thank Asker Aarkrog and fellow researchers
at the Riso Laboratory who collected this data. The following summary of
Riso tabulations selects sea vegetables, milk, fish, tea and meat/eggs
as well as total annual dietary intake for the radionuclide cesium 137
as an indicator of radioactive contamination from man-made sources. The
Chernobyl accident and the high levels of contamination that resulted in
locations outside Denmark illustrate the importance of the Riso database.
In reviewing the following summary, the reader is urged to remember that
Denmark escaped most of the impact of the Chernobyl accident, having received
1,210 Bq137Cs m2. In comparison, Chernobyl fallout
in England and Wales reached levels exceeding 60,000 Bq 137Cs
m2, in Sweden 100,000 Bq 137Cs m2 in scattered
locations, and, in some areas downwind from Chernobyl in Byelorussia, contamination
levels were measured in the hundreds of millions of Bq 137Cs
m2. In the following summary, all data are averages unless
followed by pv, meaning the peak value (peak concentrations)
among a number of samples.
|Location/yr.||Dietary Intake/yr.||Sea* Vegetables||Milk and Cream||Fish||Coffee/Tea||Meat|
|Denmark/1982||153.55||15.6 pv||0.105||4.2||6.50 pv||0.38|
|Denmark/1984||84.90||12.9 pv||0.085||14.5 pv||1.53||0.18|
|Faroes Is./1985||985.9||0.78 pv||1.82||0.29||1.53||11.34|
|Denmark/1986||483.57||33 pv||1.062||8.1 pv||1.29||1.16|
|Faroes Is./1987||3,508.01||2.16 pv||5.85||0.63||1.29||53.8|
|Faroes Is./1988||2,120.5||0.78 pv||2.77||0.44||7.3||24.1|
|Faroes Is./1989||1,792.8||0.84 pv||1.89||0.36||7.3||22.6|
|Faroes Is./1990||817.6||0.56 pv||1.61||0.23||0.44||6.64|
|Faroes Is./1991||1196.9||1.36 pv||1.28||0.18||0.44||16.6|
Several observations can be made about the data collected by the Riso National Laboratory. The yearly dietary intake of 137Cs and its presence in the sea vegetables and market basket items cited in this chart vary widely, both before and after the Chernobyl accident. The Riso data document a modest increase in the dietary intake of cesium-137 in and after 1986. The question arises as to whether an expanded survey including imported and processed foods in Denmark after 1986 would document an even larger increase of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium similar to that documented by the FDA in the U.S.A. (See FDA peak pulse analysis at the end of this section). A yearly intake of 571.54 Bq of cesium-137 in Denmark in 1987 supports the argument that Denmark escaped the impact of the Chernobyl accident. The consistently low contamination levels in Danish tea and coffee help illustrate the significance of reports in RAD 10: Chernobyl Annotated Bibliography of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in Turkish tea in the tens of thousands of becquerels per kilogram of brewed tea, to mention one example of the many citations of high levels of contamination in pathways to human consumption which resulted from the Chernobyl accident.
The following data has also been extrapolated from
the Riso Reports and complements the dietary intake data cited above.
*The following data express peak values unless otherwise
|1969-70||Greenland||Fucus vesiculosis||137Cs||35.6 Bq/kg|
|1969-70||Greenland||Fucus vesiculosis||239Pu||8.40 Bq/kg|
|1981||Greenland||Reindeer meat||137Cs||102 Bq/kg|
|1982||Denmark||Brown algae||239Pu||0.176 Bq/kg|
|1982||Sellafield facility vicinity||Fucus vesiculosis||137Cs||3 km: 2,600 Bq/kg|
|1982||Sellafield facility vicinity||Fucus vesiculosis||137Cs||23 km: 1,410 Bq/kg|
|1982||Sellafield facility vicinity||Fucus vesiculosis||137Cs||1050 km: 20.5 Bq/kg|
|1982||Greenland||Mytilus edulus||239Pu||0.64 Bq/kg|
|1983||Denmark||Mytilus edulus||137Cs||5.1 Bq/kg|
|1984||Thule, Greenland||Sediment||239Pu||43.5 Bq/kg|
The Riso reports cited in this section are: Riso R--470, 471, 487, 488, 489, 509, 510, 527, 528, 540, 549, 563, 564, 570, 571(EN), R-621(EN).
These summaries of data represent a pre-Chernobyl baseline
for the dietary intake of radiocesium and provide a reference for the evaluation
of the Chernobyl accident and its impact outside of Denmark.
|3. BODY BURDENS|
Following is a sampling of the many thousands of articles on body burdens of weapons tests fallout nuclides. For more citations on the impact of the Chernobyl accident, see RAD 10. This particular section of RADNET is cited in the order of the date of publication.
Liden, K. (1961). Cesium-137 burdens in Swedish Laplanders and reindeer. Acta Radiol., 56, 365-390.
Cohn, S.H., Spencer, H., Samachson, J., Fedlstein, A., Gusmano, E. (1962). Influence of dietary stable strontium and calcium on the turnover of bone-fixed 85Sr in man. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 110, 526-528.
Naversten, J. and Liden, K. (1964). Half-life studies of radiocesium in humans. Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. (Report No. STI/PUB/84). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Melandri, C. and Rimondi, O. (1964). In vivo measurement of 137Cs with a human body counter. Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. (Report NO. STI/PUB/84). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Rundo, J. (1964). A survey of the metabolism of cesium in man. Br. J. Radiol., 37, 108-14.
Ramsaev, P.V., Shamov, V.P., Troizkaj, M.N., Lebedev, O.V., Ibatulin, M.S. (1965). Indirect assessment of total body burden of 137Cs in people. Medizinskaj Radiol, 6, 22-28.
Magno, P.J., Kauffman, P.E. and Shleien, B. (1967).
Plutonium in environmental and biological media. Health Physics,
|1965||Winchester, MA||human liver||239Pu||2.52 pCi/kg|
|1965||Winchester, MA||human lung||239Pu||1.13 pCi/kg|
Boni, A.L. (1969). Variations in the retention and excretion of 137Cs with age and sex. Nature, 222, 1188-9.
Karches, G.J., Wheeler, J.K., Helgeson, G.L. and Kahn,
B. (1969). Cesium-137 body burdens and biological half-life in children
at Tampa, Florida and Lake Bluff, Illinois. Health Physics, 16,
|October 1966||Tampa, Fl||Total Body Burdens - children||137Cs||7.7 nCi TBB (240 Bq)|
|October 1966||Lake Bluff, Ill||TBB- children||137Cs||3.4 nCi TBB (126 Bq)|
Lloyd, D.R. Pendleton, R.C., Clark, D.O., Mays, C.W. and Goates, G.B. (1973). Cesium-137 in humans: A relationship to milk 137Cs content. Health Phys., 24, 23-36.
Lloyd, D.R. (1973). Cesium half-times in humans. Health Phys., 25, 605-10.
Moghissi, A.A. and Mayes, M.G. (1973). Radiobioassay program of the institutional total diet sampling network III. Cesium -137 dose estimates and body burdens of children. Radiation Data and Reports, 14, 4, 233-236.
Lewis, J.T., Gossman, L.W., Kereiakes, J.G. and Saenger, E.L. (1976). Cesium-137 body burdens and half-life in a group of adult males in Cincinnati, Ohio. Health Phys., 30, 315-8.
Newton, D., Eagle, M.C. and Venn, J.B. (1977). The Cesium-137 content of man related to fallout in rain, 1957-76. Int. J. Environ. Stud., 11, 2, 83-90.
Glowiak, B.J., Pacyna, J. and Palczynski, R.J. (1977). Strontium-90 and caesium-137 contents in human teeth. Environ. Pollut., 14, 101-111.
Fisenne, I., Cohen, N., Neton, J., Perry, J. (1980). Fallout plutonium in human tissues from New York City. Radiation Research, 83, 162-168.
Szabo, A.S. (1980). Method for the theoretical determination of the biological half-lives of 137Cs and 90Sr in man, on the basis of K and Ca metabolism. Radiochem. Radioanal. Letters, 43, 4, 193-202.
Klusek, C.S. (1984). Environmental Measurements Laboratory: Strontium-90 in human bone in the U.S., 1982. EML-435. Department of Energy, New York, NY.
Westerlund, E.A., Berthelsen, T. and Berteig, L. (1987). Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983. Health Phys., 52, 171-7.
Gallelli, G., Orlando, P., Perdelli, F., De Flora, S., Malcontenti, R. and Bianchini, L. (1989). Assessment from autopsy sources of the internal dose due to 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 9, 131-143.
Clemente. G.F., Mariani, A.& Santaroni, G.P. (1990).
Sex differences in Cs-metabolism in man. Health Phys,. 23,
|June 1986 -June 1987||Genoa, Italy||Total Body Burden: Males||137Cs||1245 Bq TBB|
|June 1986-June 1987||Genoa, Italy||Total Body Burden: Females||137Cs||1017 Bq TBB|
Hoshi, M. et. al. (1994). 137Cs concentration
among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the
Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel Oblasts, Belarus. Health Physics.
67(3). pp. 272-275.
|CHERNOBYL PEAK PULSE IN U.S.A. IMPORTED FOODS|
U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
1986-1988 IMPORTED FOOD SURVEY DATA ON
ELEVATED LEVELS OF CHERNOBYL-DERIVED RADIOCESIUM
CS-137 PULSE PEAK ANALYSIS
Between May 5, 1986 and December 22, 1988, the FDA tested 1,749 samples of imported foods for levels of Chernobyl-derived radioactive contamination. From analysis of the results, it appears that the peak levels of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in imported foods occurred approximately one year after the Chernobyl accident. Peak values are summarized below for the eight month period between February 1 and October 4, 1987 and for the five month period between February 5 and June 25, 1987, when contamination levels were highest.
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