Tools of the Trades


Agriculture
Architects, Architecture and Design
Armorers
Artisans and Craftsmen (arts and crafts)
Axes
Bicycles
Blacksmiths
Bookbinding
Candlemaking
Carriagemaking
Clockmakers and Watchmakers
Cobblers
Coopers
Crooked knives

Cutlers
Electro-plating
Engineers and Engineering
Engraving
Farriers

Files
Flax Dressing
Foundry Operation
Glassblowing
Graining
Grinding
Gunsmiths
Hatters

Homemakers
Ice Harvesting
Inventors and Inventions
Knives and Swords
Lighting Devices
Locksmith

Loggers and Timber Harvesting (Lumbering)
Machinists
Measuring and Drafting Tools
Mechanics
Metalworking (Metallurgy)
Milliners
Mills and Milling (food)
Nails and Nailmaking
Papermaking
Patternmaking

Pewter
Planemaking
Plastics
Pliers
Plumbing and Heating
Potters
Quarrying

Railroads
Raw Material Preparation
Rope Making and Sail Making
Sawyers (Saws)
Scientific Instruments
Screwdrivers
Sheet Metal Working
Ships, Shipbuilding, and Shipwrights
Silversmiths and Jewelers
Steam Engines

Surgery
Surveying
Tanning
Textiles
Timber Framing and Housebuilding
Tinsmithing
Toolmaking
Whaling
Wheelwrights
Woodworking
Wrenches



Agriculture

Brigden, Roy. (1983). Agricultural hand tools. Shire Album 100. Shire Publications Ltd., Aylesbury, UK. IS.

Cobleigh, Rolfe. (1909). Handy farm devices and how to make them. Orange Judd Company, Canada. Ninth reprinting in 1996 by Lyons Press, NY, NY. IS.

Evans, George Ewart. (1970). Tools of their trades: An oral history of men at work c. 1900. Taplinger Publishing Company, NY, NY. IS.

Hopf, Carroll. (September 1976). Additional thoughts about grafting tools. The Chronicle. 29(3). pg. 53-4. IS.

Keller, Charles M. (June 1988). Scythe anvils and scythe spellings. The Chronicle. 41(2). pg. 33. IS.

Lewis, M.J.T. (July 1994). The origins of the wheelbarrow. Technology and Culture: The International Quarterly of the Society for the History of Technology. 35(3). pg. 453-475. IS.

Markwell, Dawes. (June 1972). Handy oxen. The Chronicle. 25(2). pg. 17-21. IS.

Rathbone, Pembroke Thom. (1999). The history of old time farm implement companies and the wrenches they issued including buggy, silo, cream separator, windmill, and gas engine companies. R-Lucky Star Ranch, Rt. 1, Box 734, Marsing, Idaho 83639.

Roger, Bob. (March 2003). Hand-held green corn shredders. The Chronicle. 56(1). pg. 16-24. IS.

Roger, Bob. (June 2004). A compendium of hay knives. The Chronicle. 57(2). pg. 54-61. IS.

Roger, Bob. (June 2004). Addendum I: U.S. patents for hay knives. The Chronicle. 57(2). pg. 61-69. IS.

Roger, Bob. (June 2004). Addendum II: Chronology of hay-knife articles in The Chronicle. The Chronicle. 57(2). pg. 69-71. IS.

Russell, Howard S. (1982). A long, deep furrow: Three centuries of farming in New England. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. IS.

Tresemer, David. (1982). The scythe book: Mowing hay, cutting weeds, and harvesting small grains with hand tools. By Hand & Foot, Ltd., Brattleboro, VT. IS.

Vince, John. (1974). Old farm tools. Shire Album 4. Shire Publications Ltd., Aylesbury, UK. IS.

Watkins, Malcolm. (July 1947). The ox yoke. The Chronicle. 3(12). pg. 103-104, 106. IS.

Architects, Architecture, and Design

Cummings, Abbott Lowell. (1979). The framed houses of Massachusetts Bay. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cummings, Abbott Lowell. (1984). Architecture in early New England. Old Sturbridge Village Booklet Series, Old Sturbridge, Inc., Sturbridge, CT.

Félibien, A. (1767). Principes de l'architecture, etc. Paris.

Isham, Norman Morrison. (1968). A glossary of colonial architectural terms. American Life Foundation, Watkins Glen, NY.

Fitchen, John. (1968). The New World Dutch Barn. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY. IS.

Karp, Ben. (1966). Wood motifs in American domestic architechture/phantasy in wood. A.S. Barnes and Co, Inc., Cranbury, NJ.  Revised in 1981 and published as Ornamental carpentry on nineteenth century American houses by Dover Publications, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Kimball, Fiske. (1966). Domestic architecture of the American colonies and of the early republic. Dover, NY, NY.

Lewandoski, Jan, et al. (2006). Historic American roof trusses. Timber Framer’s Guild, Becket, MA.

McAlester, Virginia and McAlester, Lee. (1984). A field guide to American houses. Alfred A. Knopf, NY, NY. IS.

Mercer, Henry C., Dr. (1923). The dating of old houses. Vol. V. Reprinted from a collection of papers read before the Bucks County Historical Society. IS.

Morrison, Hugh. (1952). Early American architecture: From the first colonial settlements to the national period. Dover Publications, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Pierson, William H., Jr. (1978). American buildings and their architects: Technology and the picturesque. Doubleday, Garden City, NY.

Pratt, Richard. (1949). A treasury of American homes. Whittlesey House, NY, NY.

Read, Herbert. (1956). Art and industry: The principles of industrial design. Faber and Faber Limited, London. IS.

Rogers, Meyric R. (1947). American interior design. W. W. Norton, NY, NY.

Seymour, Howard. (October 1985). The steel pen and the modern line of beauty. Technology and Culture. 26.

Waterman, Thomas T. (1950). The dwellings of colonial America. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

Woodward, George E. and Thompson, Edward G. (1869). Woodward's national architect; containing 1000 original designs, plans and details, to working scale, for the practical construction of dwelling houses for the country, suburb and village. With full and complete sets of specifications and an estimate of the cost of each design. Geo. E Woodward, NY, NY. Reprinted in 1988 as A Victorian housebuilder's guide: "Woodward's national architect" of 1869 by General Publishing Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada. IS.

Armorers

Creswell, K.A.C. (1956) The bibliography of arms and armor in Islam. The Royal Asiatic Society. London.

Demmin, Auguste. (1911). An illustrated history of arms and armour. G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London. IS.

Grafton, Carol Belanger Ed. (1995). Arms and armor: A pictorial archive from nineteenth-century sources. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. IS.

Hime, Henry W.L. (1915). The origin of artillery. Longmans, Green & Co, New York, NY.

Lynch, Kenneth. The armourer and his tools.

Miller, Jeffrey. (August 2000). The armourer's corner: English lock and dog locks. The Pine Tree Shilling. 2(3). pg. 5, 12.

Robertson, Gredrick. (1921). The evolution of naval armament. Constable & Co., London.

Schubert, Hans. (1942). The first cast iron cannon made in England. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. XLVI(2). pg. 132.

Williams, A.R. (1977). Roman arms and armour. J. Arch Sci. 4. pg. 77-87.

Artisans and Craftsmen (arts and crafts)

Blandford, Percy W. (1974). Country craft tools. Newton Abbot.

Caulfeild, Sophia and Saward, Blanche. (1885). The dictionary of needlework: An encyclopedia of artistic, plain, and fancy needlework illustrated with more than 800 wood engravings. Second edition. London. Reprinted in 1989 as a facsimile of the original second edition by Blaketon Hall Ltd., Exeter, UK. IS.

Desiant, A. (1927). Ideas in stenciling. Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd., London, UK. Reprinted in 1990 by Wellfleet Press, Secaucus, NJ. IS.

 
Eaton, Allen H. (1954). Handicrafts of New England. Bonanza Books, NY, NY. IS.


Frost, Rodney. (2000). The quiet pleasures of crafting by hand. Sterling Pub. Co., Inc., NY, NY.

Meyer, Carolyn. (1975). People who make things: How American craftsmen live and work. Atheneum, NY, NY. IS.

Rock, Howard B. (1979). Artisans of the new republic: The tradesmen of New York City in the age of Jefferson. New York University Press, NY, NY. IS.

Romaine, Lawrence B. (March 1939). Basket making. The Chronicle. 2(8). pg. 57-58. IS.

Schnirring, Melissa. (date unknown). Life in early America. Colonial Crafts. volume unknown, pg. 489 - 497. IS.

Seymour, John. (1984). The forgotten crafts. Portland House, New York, NY. IS.

Smitten, Stanley. (1976). Chair caning and furniture restoring. Unpublished, prepared for the April 1976 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Sprague, William B. (April 1939). The brush maker. The Chronicle. 2(9). pg. 65, 67-68. IS.

Sprague, William B. (April 1942). The comb maker. The Chronicle. 2(20). pg. 169, 171-172. IS.

Stockham, Peter, Ed. (1976). The little book of early American crafts & trades. Dover Publications, NY, NY.

Stockham, Peter, Ed. (1992). Old-time crafts and trades. Dover Publications, NY, NY. IS. Stockham, Peter, Ed. (1992). Early nineteenth-century crafts and trades. Dover Publications, NY, NY. IS. Wamsley, James S. (1982). The crafts of Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, VA.

Yates, Raymond F. and Yates, Marguerite W. (1954). Early American crafts & hobbies: A treasury of skills, avocations, handicrafts, and forgotten pastimes and pursuits from the golden age of the American home. Funk & Wagnalls, NY, NY. IS.

Axes

Berg, Elizabet, ed. (1997). The axe book. Gransfors Bruks AB, Sweden.

Cook, Dudley. (2005). The ax book: The lore and science of the woodcutter. Hood, Alan C. & Company, Inc., Chambersburg, PA.

Foley, Vernard and Moyer, Richard H. (June 1977). The American ax - was it better? The Chronicle. 30.

Gamble, James D. (1986). Broad axes. Tanro Co., Los Altos, CA.

Gordon, Robert B. (1988). Material evidence of the manufacturing methods used in "armory practice". Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 14(1). pg. 23-35.

Grismer, Jerome T. and Kendrick, Clyde H. (1985). Embossed American axes: A photographic guide. Jerome T Grismer and Clyde H. Kendrick, publishers, Columbia, Missouri. IS.

Hartzler, Daniel and Knowles, James. (1995). Indian tomahawks & frontiersmen belt axes. Privately printed.

Hallman, Richard. (1988). Handtools for trail work. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT.

Heavrin, Charles A. (1998). The axe and man: The history of man's early technology as exemplified by his axe.The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Hodgkinson, Ralph. (1965). Tools of the woodworker: axes, adzes and hatchets. History Tech. Leaflet 28. American Association for State and Local History.

Kauffman, Henry J. (April 1954). Some notes on axes. The Chronicle. 7(2). pg. 18-20. IS.

Kauffman, Henry J. (1972). American axes: A survey of their development and their makers. S. Greene Press, Brattleboro, VT. IS.

Lamond, Tom. (2006). 200 years of axe design evolution. Fine Tool Journal. 55(3). pg. 7. IS.

Lamond, Tom. (Fall 2011). From trade axes to Hudson Bay axes. Fine Tool Journal. 61(2). pg. 13-14. IS.

McLaren, Peter. (1929). Axe manual of Peter McLaren. Fayette R. Plumb, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Peterson, Harold. (1965). American Indian tomahawks. Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, NY.

Russell, Carl. (March 1966). Double-bitted axe in America. The Chronicle. 19(1). pg. 8-9. IS.

Weisgerber, Bernie and Vachowski, Brian. (1999). An ax to grind: A practical ax manual. Technical Report 9923-2823-MTDC. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT.

Bicycles

Johnson, Laurence. (December 1960). Bone-shakers. The Chronicle. 13(4). pg. 41-43. IS.

Blacksmiths
(also see farriers and the metallurgy bibliography in Volume 11, Handbook for Ironmongers)

Andrews, Jack. (1994). New edge of the anvil: A descriptive book for the blacksmith. Skipjack Press, Ocean River, MD. IS.

Andrews, Jack. (2011). Samuel Yellin, metalworker. Skipjack Press, Ocean River, MD.

Arthur, Eric and Ritchie, Thomas. (1982). Iron. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. IS.

Aspery, Mark. (2006). Skills of a Blacksmith (3 Volumes). Mark Aspery, Springville, CA.

Bacon, John Lord. (1904). Forge-practice (elementary). Original copyright by John L. Bacon.  Second edition, enlarged, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1914.  Reprinted in 1986 by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, IL 60915. IS.

Bealer, Alex W. (1976). The art of blacksmithing. Castle Books, Edison, NJ. IS.

Brepohl, Erhard and McCreight, Tim. (2001). Theory and practice of goldsmithing. Translated from German into English by Charles Lewton-Brain. Brynmorgen Press, Brunswick, ME.

Carlberg, Per. (July 1958). Early industrial production of Bessemer steel at Edsken. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 189. pg. 201-204.

Chapman, Gene. (2004). Hot shop (small potatoes) blacksmith suff. Oak and Iron Publishing, Kingston, WA.

Clay, W. (1858). On the manufacture of puddled or wrought steel with an account of some of the uses to which it has been applied. Journal of the Society of Arts. VI. pg. 140-148. W.

Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas. (1952). The blacksmith's craft: An introduction to smithing for apprentices and craftsmen. Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas, London. Reprinted in 1975. IS.

Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas. (1953). Wrought ironwork: A manual of instruction for craftsmen. Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas, London. Reprinted in 1968. IS. Reprinted in 1987 by Macmillan Publishing Company, NY, NY. IS.

Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas. (1962). Decorative ironwork. Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas, London.  Reprinted in 1973. IS. Reprinted in 1987 by Macmillan Publishing Company. IS.

Didsbury, J. (December 1964). Tool study -- blacksmith's hammers. The Chronicle. 17(4). pg. 46-48. IS.

Didsbury, J. (March 1965). Tool study -- blacksmith's hammers (continued). The Chronicle. 18(1). pg. 12-14. IS.

Didsbury, J. (June 1965). Tool study -- blacksmith's (continued). The Chronicle. 18(2). pg. 28-30.IS.

Didsbury, J. (September 1965). Blacksmith's cutting tools. The Chronicle. 18(3). pg. 46-48.IS.

Didsbury, J. (December 1965). Blacksmith's tools (continued). The Chronicle. 18(4). pg. 61-62, 64.IS.

Didsbury, J. (March 1966). Blacksmith tools (continued). The Chronicle. 19(1). pg. 14-15.IS.

Didsbury, J. (June 1966). Blacksmith's tools shop accessories. The Chronicle. 19(2). pg. 25.IS.

Didsbury, J. (September 1966). Blacksmith tools: 18th century drilling machines. The Chronicle. 19(3). pg. 43-44.IS.

Didsbury, J. (December 1966). Blacksmith tools (continued). The Chronicle. 19(4). pg. 60-62.IS.

Fisher, Leonard E. (2000). The blacksmiths. Benchmark Books, NY.

Gardner, J. Starkie. (1892). Victoria & Albert Museum: Ironwork: Part I. From the earliest times to the end of the mediaeval period. Printed under the authority of the Board of Education, London. Photolitho impression with supplementary bibliography compiled by Marian Campbell in 1978. IS.

Gardner, J. Starkie. (1896). Victoria & Albert Museum: Ironwork: Part II. Continental ironwork of the Renaissance and later periods. Printed under the authority of the Board of Education, London. Photolitho impression with supplementary bibliography compiled by Marian Campbell in 1978. IS.

Gardner, J. Starkie. (1922). Victoria & Albert Museum: Ironwork: Part III. The artistic working of iron in Great Britain from the earlist times. Printed under the authority of his Majesty's Stationary Office, London. Photolitho impression with supplementary bibliography compiled by Marian Campbell in 1978. IS.

Geerlings, Gerard. (1958). Wrought iron in architecture. Bonanza Books, New York, NY. IS.

Gentry, George. (1950). Hardening and tempering engineers' tools. Model Aeronautical Press Ltd., Hertsfordshire, England. Revised in 1966 by Edgar T. Westbury. IS.

Hall, R.G. (June 1976). Datable characteristics of anvils. CEAIA. 29. pg. 21-24. W.

Harcourt, Robert Henry. (1917). Elementary forge practice. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Reprinted in 1995 by Lindsay Publications, Bradley, IL.

Holmstrom, John Gustaf and Holford, Henry. (1982). American blacksmithing and twentieth century toolsmith and steelworker. Greenwich House, NY, NY. IS.

International Correspondence Schools. (1906). Blacksmith shop and iron forging. Reprinted in 1983 by Lindsay Publications Inc., Bradley, IL.

International Correspondence Schools. (1906). Machine molding: Foundry appliances; Malleable casting; Brass founding; Blacksmith-shop equipment; Iron forging; Tool dressing; Hardening & tempering; Treatment of low-carbon steel; Hammer work; Machine forging; Special forging operations. International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA. Reprinted in 1983 by Lindsay Publications, Bradley, IL.

Kalman, Bobbie. (2001). The blacksmith. Crabtree Publishing Company, NY, NY. IS.

Kelleher, Tom. (September 2002). Nuts and bolts. The Chronicle. 55(3). pg. 112-115. IS.

Larsen, Ray. (September 1978). Modern hand forging. The Chronicle. 31(3). pg. 49-53. IS.

Larsen, Ray. (December 1984). The art of the draw forger. The Chronicle. 37(4). pg. 57-60. IS.

Larsen, Ray. (March 1985). The art of the draw forger - part II. The Chronicle. 38(1). pg. 5-9. IS.

Leslie, Candace and Hopkins-Hughs, Diane. (2000). From forge & anvil. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Light, John D. (1984). The archeological investigation of blacksmith shops. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 10(1). pg. 55-68.

Lyman, Paul H. (May 1945). The ancient anvil. The Chronicle. 3(4). pg. 37. X.

Lynch, Kenneth. (c. 1975). Catalog: The Kenneth Lynch Tool Collection. 78 Danbury Rd., Wilton, CT 06897. IS.

McDaniel, Randy. (2004). A blacksmithing primer: A course in basic & intermediate blacksmithing. 2nd Edition. Dragonfly Enterprises.

McDaniel, Randy. (2004). A blacksmithing primer: A course in basic & intermediate blacksmithing. 2nd Edition. Hobar Publications.

McRaven, Charles. (1981). Country blacksmithing: A complete, step-by-step guide to working with iron: Everything you need to know to • make your own forge • rework scrap iron and steel • create anything from decorative nails and hinges to broadaxes and farming tools. Harper & Row, Publishers, NY, NY. IS.

Meilach, Dona Z. (2000). The contemporary blacksmith. Schiffer Pub. Ltd., Atglen, PA.

Meilach, Dona and Seiden, Don. (1966). Direct metal sculpture: Creative techniques and appreciation. Crown Publishers, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Miller, Jeffrey. (November 1999). Tradesman's arts & mystery ~ ironmaking in colonial America. The Pine Tree Shilling. 1(4). pg. 15-16, 18. IS.

Naujoks, Waldemar, B.S., M.E. and Fabel, Doanld C.,B.S., M.S. (1953). Forging Handbook. The American Society for Metals, Cleveland, OH. IS.

Parkinson, Peter. (2001). The artist blacksmith: Design and techniques. Crowood Press, Ramsbury, UK.

Plummer, Don. Colonial wrought iron: The Sorber collection. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Porter, Michael. (2004). Gas burners for forges, furnaces & kilns. Skipjack Press, Inc., Houston, TX.

Postman, Richard. (1998). Anvils in America. Self-published, 10 Fischer Ct., Berrian Springs, MI. IS.

Richardson, M.T., Ed. (1978). Practical blacksmithing: The original classic in one volume. Weathervane Books, NY. IS.

Robins, F.W. (1953). The smith. Rider and Co., London.

Schiffer, Herbert, Schiffer, Peter and Schiffer, Nancy. (1979). Antique iron: Survey of American and English forms fifteenth through nineteenth centuries. Shiffer Publishing Ltd., Box E., Eaton, Pennsylvania. IS.

Schwarzkopf, Ernst. (2000). Plain and ornamental forging. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Simmons, Marc and Turley, Frank. (1980). Southwestern colonial ironwork: The Spanish blacksmithing tradition from Texas to California. Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe, NM. IS.

Smith, John R. (1902). Manual of blacksmithing. M. A. Donohue & Company. Reprinted in 1994 by Lindsay Publications Inc., Bradley, IL.

Smith, H.R. Bradley. (1966). Blacksmith's and farriers' tools at Shelburne Museum: A history of their development from forge to factory. Museum Pamphlet Series, Number 7. The Shelburne Museum, Inc., Shelburne, VT. IS (2).

Sonn, Albert H. (1922). Early American wrought iron. Scribners, NY, NY. Reprinted in 1989, 3 volumes in 1, Bonanza Books, NY, NY.

Stanley, Leslie Harry. (2003). Just an idea. Self-published.

Streeter, Donald. (1995). Professional smithing. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Tremblay, Robert and Ruddel, David-Thiery . (2010). By hammer and hand all arts do stand: Blacksmithing in Canada before 1950. Canadian Science and Technology Museums Corporation, Ottawa, Canada. IS.

Tucker, Ted. (1980). Practical projects for the blacksmith. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. IS.

Uselding, Paul. (October 1974). Elisha K. Root, forging, and the 'American system'. Technology and Culture. 15(4). pg. 543-568. W.

Wallace, Philip. (1930). Colonial ironwork in old Philadelphia. Bonanza Books, New York, NY. IS.

Watson, Aldren A. (2000). The blacksmith: Ironworker and farrier. W. W. Norton & Company, NY, NY.

Weygers, Alexander G. (1973). The making of tools. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, NY, NY. IS.

Weygers, Alexander G. (1974). The modern blacksmith. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, NY, NY. IS.

Weygers, Alexander G. (1997). The complete modern blacksmith. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. IS.

Whitaker, Francis. (2010). The blacksmith's cookbook. Blue Moon Press, PA. IS.

Bookbinding

Samford, C. Clement. (January 1954). Bookbinding in colonial America. The Chronicle. 7(1). pg. 4-9. IS.

Wallace, William. (1975). Some notes on bookbinding. Unpublished, prepared for the May 1975 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Watson, Aldren A. (1996). Hand bookbinding: A manual of instruction. Dover Publications, NY, NY.

Candlemaking

Johnson, Leonard. (1971). Some light on candle making. Unpublished, prepared for the Dec. 4, 1971 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Carriagemaking

Berkebile, Don H. (1977). American carriages, sleighs, sulkies, and carts: 168 Illustrations from Victorian sources. Dover Publications, Inc. New York, NY. IS.

Berkebile, Don H. (1978). Carriage terminology: An historical dictionary. Reprinted by The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Berkebile, Don H. (1989). Horse-drawn commercial vehicles: 255 Illustrations of nineteenth-century stagecoaches, delivery wagons,fire engines, etc. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. IS.

Locher, Floyd J. (December 1970). Coach maker's and cooper's tools. The Chronicle. 23(4). pg. 54-55. IS.

Richardson, M.T., Ed. (1892). Practical carriage building. 2 Vols. M. T. Richardson Co., Publishers.  Reprinted in 1981 in one volume by the Early American Industries Association, Scarsdale, NY. IS.

Clockmakers and Watchmakers

The American Waltham Watch Factory. (November 17, 1888). The American Waltham watch factory. Electrical Review. pg. 2.

Bailey, Chris H. (1975). Two hundred years of American clocks & watches. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Bruton, Eric. (1968). The Longcase clock. Frederick A. Praeger, Publsiher, New York, NY. IS.

Goodrich, Ward. (1952). The watchmaker's lathe: Its use and abuse. North American Watch Tool & Supply Co., Chicago, IL. IS.

Ralph, William. (1972). A time for clocks, being a discourse on timekeeping and related matters. Unpublished, prepared for the March 21, 1972 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Roberts, Kenneth. (1973). Eli Terry and the Connecticut shelf clock. Ken Roberts Publishing Co., Bristol, CT.

Scientific American. (March 4, 1899). The building of a watch. Scientific American. pg. 132.

Tripplin, Julien and Rigg, Edward. (1880). The watchmaker's hand-book intended as a workshop companion for those engaged in watchmaking and the allied mechanical arts. Translated from the French of Claudius Saunier. Reprinted in 1948. The Technical Press Ltd., London. IS.

Ullyett, Kenneth. (1950). In quest of clocks. Spring Books, New York, NY. IS.

Wyke, John. (1978). A catalogue of tools for watch and clock makers. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. IS.

Zea, Philip and Cheney, Robert. (date unknown). Clockmaking in New England. Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, MA.

Cobblers

Mitchell, Robert. (December 1960). Some interesting shoemakers tools. The Chronicle. 13(4). pg. 46-47. IS.

Townsend, Raymond. (May 1956). 18th century shoemaker's tools. The Chronicle. 9(2). pg. 18-19. IS.

Coopers

Anonymous. (December 1991). A trussing of staves -- a miscellany of pieces. The Chronicle. 44(34). pg. 106-108. IS.

Anonymous. (September 1965). The cooper's chamfer knife. The Chronicle. 18(3). pg. 40-41. IS.

Anonymous. (1969). The cooper and his work. Unpublished, In honor of John S Kebabian, prepared for the May 20, 1969 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Anonymous. (June 1972). Modern cooper's tools. The Chronicle. 25(2). pg. 28. IS.

Bailey, Gillian W. (September 1950). Cooperage. The Chronicle. 3(24). 217, 222-223. IS.

Cooper, Miner J. (March 1962). Early American Industries tool study: Hoop-setting gauges. The Chronicle. 15(1). pg. 11-12. IS.

Cope, Kenneth L. (2003). American cooperage machinery and tools. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Coyne, Franklin E. (1947). The development of the cooperage industry in the United States, 1620-40. Lumber Buyers Publishing Company, Chicago, IL.

Haines, Ethel. (January and April 1946). The handmade barrel hoop. The Chronicle. 3(6,7). pg. 60. X.

Hankerson, F. P. (1951). The wooden barrel manual: Revised, 1951. The Associated Cooperage Industries of America, Inc., 2100 Gardiner Lane, Suite 100E, Louisville, KY. Reprinted in 1983. IS.

Kebabian, John S. (September 1972). Richard Cromwell as cooper, 1659. The Chronicle. 25(3). pg. 33-35. IS.

Keller, David N. (1983). Cooper Industries: 1833 - 1983. Ohio University Press, Athens, OH. IS.

Kilby, Kenneth. (1971). The cooper and his trade. Linden Publishing Co., Inc., Fresno, CA. IS.

Louisville Cooperage Company/Chess and Wymond Company. (n.d.). Cooper's craft. Reprinted unrevised in 1983 by The Associated Cooperage Industries of American, Inc., 2100 Gardiner Lane, Suite 100E, Louisville, KY. IS.

Martin, Richard A. (September 1992). The manufacture of wooden pails by manual labor. The Chronicle. 45(3). pg. 67-69. IS.

Miller, Jeffrey. (August 2000). Tradesman's arts & mystery: An introduction to coopering, the art of making barrels. The Pine Tree Shilling. 2(3). pg. 1-2.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (December 1968). Some cooper's tools: Part I. The Chronicle. 21(4). pg. 55-58. IS.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (March 1969). Some cooper's tools: Part II. The Chronicle. 22(1). pg. 6-8. IS.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (September 1969). Some cooper's tools: Part III. The Chronicle. 22(3). pg. 41-42. IS.

Shagena, Jack L. (2006). An illustrated history of the barrel in America. Self published by Jack L. Shagena, Bel Air, MD.

Sprague, William B. (June 1938). The cooper. The Chronicle. 2(5). pg. 33, 35-36, 38. IS.

Sprague, William B. (May 1956). The cooper. The Chronicle. 9(2). pg. 16-17, 19-20, 24. IS.

Walsh, James D. (March 1998). Pipe: A lost part of Americana. The Chronicle. 51(1). pg. 13-14. IS.

Wolcott, Stephen C. (January 1935). A cooper's shop of 1800. The Chronicle. 1(9). pg. 1-2, 7. IS.

Crooked knives

Blodgett, Wentworth P. (December 1964). The crooked knife. The Chronicle. In: Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl, Eds. (1991). Selections from The Chronicle: The fascinating world of early tools and trades. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Brainard, Newton C. (September 1962). The crooked knife. The Chronicle. In: Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl, Eds. (1991). Selections from The Chronicle: The fascinating world of early tools and trades. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Sayward, Elliot. (Summer 2001). The crooked knife. The Freeholder. Oyster Bay Historical Society. IS.

Starr, Nicholas. (September 2008). The crooked knife - a New World phenomenon: A brief overview with proposals for descriptive nomenclature. The Chronicle. 61(3). pg. 99-105. IS.

Witthof, John. (March 1963). Notes on the American Indian crooked knife. The Chronicle. In: Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl, Eds. (1991). Selections from The Chronicle: The fascinating world of early tools and trades. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Cutlers
(also see blacksmiths, metallurgy, and European Precedents and the Early Industrial Revolution)

Abels, R. (1967). Classic Bowie knives. Robert Abels, Inc. New York, NY.

Himsworth, Joseph Beeston (1953). The story of cutlery: From flint to stainless steel. Benn, London, UK.

Grayson, Ruth and Hawley, Ken. (1995). Knifemaking in Sheffield and the Hawley Collection. Exhibition Catalog, The Hawley Collection, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Leader, R.E. (1905). History of the Cutlers’ company. 2 vols. Sheffield, UK.

Lloyd, G.I.H. (1913). The cutlery trades. London.

Pankiewicz, Philip. (1986). New England cutlery. Hollytree Publications, Gilman, CT.

Petersen, Harold Leslie. (1958). American knives: The first history and collectors' guide. Scribner, New York, NY.

Platts, Harvey (1978). The Knifemakers who went west. Longs Peak Press, Longmont, CO.

Taber, Martha Van Hoesen. (1955/9). A history of the cutlery industry in the Connecticut Valley. Smith College Studies in History, Smith College, Northampton, MA.

Unwin, Joan and Hawley, Ken. (1999). Sheffield industries: Cutlery, silver and edge tools. Images of England Series, Stroud, Tempus.

Unwin, Joan and Hawley, Ken. (2003). A cut above the rest - the heritage of Sheffield's blade manufacture. Exhibition Catalog, The Hawley Collection, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Washer, Richard. (1974). The Sheffield Bowie knife and pocket knife makers, 1825-1925. Zeros Printers Ltd., Nottingham, UK.

Zalesky, Mark D. (May 2005). Bowies on a budget? Knifeworld. 31(5). IS.

Electro-plating

Warburton, L. (1950). Electro-plating for the amateur. Model and Allied Publications Limited, Hertfordshire, England. IS.

Engineers and Engineering

American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers. (1959). Tool engineers handbook: A reference book on all phases of planning construct design tooling and operations in the manufacturing industries. 2nd edition. ASME, NY. IS.

Appleton D. & Co. (1852.) Appleton's dictionary of machines, mechanics, engine-work, and engineering. D. Appleton & Co., NY, NY.

Aubuisson de Voisins, Jean François d'. (1852).A treatise on hydraulics: For the use of engineers. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston, MA.

Billings, William R. (1889). Some details of waterworks construction. The Engineering and Building Record Press, NY, NY. IS.

Clapp, Howard Wm. and Clark, Donald Sherman. (1944). Engineering materials and processes. International Textbook Press, Scranton, PA. IS.

Keuffel & Esser Company. (1976). Calendar: Early American engineers: The early craftsman, his tools, his creations and his design. K&E Co., Long Island City, NY. IS.

Kirby, Richard Shelton, Withington, Sidney, Darling, Arthur Burr and Kilgour, Frederick Gridley. (1956). Engineering in history. Dover Publications, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Moore, Stanley H. (1908). Mechanical engineering and machine shop practice. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY, NY. IS.

North American Model Engineering Exhibition. (2002). Program: 13th annual North American Model Engineering Exposition. North American Model Engineering Society, 36506 Sherwood, Livonia, MI, 48154. IS.

Roper, Stephen. (1880). Roper's questions and answers for engineers. Edward Meeks, Philadelphia, PA. IS.

White, Alfred H. (1939). Engineering materials. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Engraving

Rees, F. H. (1909). The art of engraving: A text-book and practical treatise on the engraver's art, with special reference to letter and monogram engraving. The Keystone Publishing Co., Philadelphia, PA. IS.

Farriers
Also see blacksmiths.

Lungwitz, A. and Adams, Charles F. (1981). The complete guide to blacksmithing horseshoeing, carriage and wagon building and painting. Bonanza, NY.

Lungwitz and Adams, J. (1884). A textbook of horse shoeing. Reprinted in 1966 by Oregon State University Press, Convallis, OR.

Straffin, Dean. (March 1989). Farrier's tools - a rewarding study. The Chronicle. 42(1). pg. 8-9. IS.

Files

Fremont, Charles. (1920). Files and filing. Translated by Taylor, Geo. and dedicated to the Sheffield Files Trades Technical Society. Isaac Pitman & Sons, London, UK.

Harris, J. R. (1985). First thoughts on files. Tools & Trades. 3. pg. 27-35.

Nicholson File Company. (1878). A treatise on files and rasps: Descriptive and illustrated: For the use of master mechanics, dealers, &c. in which the kinds of files in most common use, and the newest and most approved special tools connected therewith, are described -- giving some of their principal uses. With a description of the process of manufacture, and a few hints on the use and care of the file. Reprinted in 1983 by the Early American Industries Association. IS.

Nicholson File Company. (1945). Nicholson files and rasps and X.F. Swiss pattern files. Nicholson File Company, Providence, RI. IS.

Nicolson File Company. (1956). File filosophy and how to get the most out of files (-being a brief account of the history, manufacture, variety and uses of files in general.) Twentieth Edition. Nicolson File Company, Providence, R.I. IS.

Sawers, John W. (March 1987). Recycled files. The Chronicle. 40(1). pg. 1-2. IS.

Flax Dressing
(also see Milliners and Textiles)

Sprague, William B. (May 1936). Flax dressing by hand. The Chronicle. 1(17). pg. 1, 3. IS.

Sprague, William B. (July 1936). Flax dressing by hand. The Chronicle. 1(18). pg. 4, 6. IS.

Van Wagenen, Jared. (March 1947). Flax and the loom. The Chronicle. 3(11). pg. 93, 95, 97-99, 101-102 . X.

Foundry Operation
(also see metallurgy, blacksmiths and Vol. 11, Handbook for Ironmongers)

Alloy Casting Institute Division. (1973). High alloy data sheets: Corrosion series. Steel Founders' Society of America, Cast Metals Federation Building, Rocky River, OH. IS.

Alloy Casting Institute Division. (1973). High alloy data sheets: Heat series. Steel Founders' Society of America, Cast Metals Federation Building, Rocky River, OH. IS.

Batory, Dana Martin. (Summer 2004). Cast in iron. Fine Tool Journal. 54(1). pg. 8-13.IS.

Hutton, R.S. (December 7, 1906). The electric furnace and its applications to the metallurgy of iron and steel. Engineering. 7. pg. 779-781.

Miller, J.K. (1936). Forging dies. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

Sopcak, James E. (1968). Handbook of lost wax or investment casting. Gembooks, Mentone, CA. IS.

Simpson, Bruce. (1948). Development of the metals casting industry. American Foundrymens Association, Chicago.

Stimpson, William C., Gray, Burton L. and Grennan, John. (1930). Foundry work: A practical handbook on standard foundry practice, including hand and machine molding with typical problems, casting operations, melting and pouring equipment, metallurgy of cast metals, etc.  American Technical Society, Chicago. IS.

Wedel, Ernst von. (1960). The history of die forming. Metal treatment and drop forging. 27. pg. 401-408.

West, Thomas D. (1883). American foundry practice: treating of loam, dry sand and green sand moulding: And containing a practical treatise upon the management of cupolas and the melting of iron. J. Wiley & Sons, NY, NY.

West, Thomas Dyson. (1891). West's moulders' text-book: Being part II. of American foundry practice. J. Wiley, NY, NY.

Woodworth, Joseph V. (1903). Dies, their construction and use for the modern working of sheet metals: A treatise on the design, construction and use of dies, punches, tools, fixtures and devices, together with the manner in which they should be used in the power press. N.W. Henley & Co., New York, NY.

Woodworth, Joseph V. (1907). Punches, dies and tools for manufacturing in presses ... / by Joseph V. Woodworth ... a companion and reference volume to the author's elementary work entitled "Dies, their construction and use for the modern working of sheet metals". N.W. Henley & Co., New York, NY.

Glassblowing

Heddle, G. M. (1961). A manual on etching and engraving glass. Alec Tiranti Ltd., London. IS.

Oppenheim, A. Leo et al. (1971) Glass and glass making in ancient Mesopotamia. Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, NY.

Starbuck, David R. (1986). The New England Glassworks. New Hampshire Archaeologist. 27.

Wilson, Kenneth M. (1969). Glass in New England. Old Sturbridge Village Publications, Sturbridge, MA. IS.

Grinding

Behr-Manning. (1944). How to sharpen. Behr-Manning a division of Norton Abrasives, Troy, NY. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (no date). How to use truing and dressing tools for better grinding. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1943). The abc of internal grinding: A handbook for operators of internal grinding machines. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1951). The abc of o. d. grinding: Cylindrical centerless. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1952). The abc of surface grinding. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1956). A handbook on tool room grinding including the sharpening of high-speed steel, nonferrous cast alloy and cemented carbide tools. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1956). Mounted wheels: Principles of safe and efficient operation with tables of maximum operating speeds. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Norton Abrasives. (1957). A handbook on abrasives and grinding wheels. Norton Company, Worcester, MA. IS.

Tone, Frank J. (no date). Abrasives in the service of industry. The Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, NY. IS.

Woodbury, Robert S. (1959). History of the grinding machine; a historical study in tools and precision production. Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Graining

Wall, William E. (1905). Graining: Ancient and modern. Norwood Press, Norwood, MA. IS.

Gunsmiths

Annonymous. (1985). Researching early Maine craftsmen: John H. Hall and the gunsmith’s trade. Maine Historical Society Quarterly. 24. pg. 410-15.

Bonhams & Butterfields. 2006. The William H. Guthman Collection part I: Arms and militaria: Thursday October 12, 2006 the Frank Jones Center Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Bonhams & Butterfields, San Francisco, CA. IS.

Brown, M. L. (1980). Firearms in colonial America: The impact on history and technology, 1492-1792. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Clephan, Robert Coltman, F.S.A. (1906). An outline of the history and development of hand firearms, from the earliest period to about the end of the fifteenth century. Walter Scott Publishing Co.,LTD. New York, NY. IS.

Cooper, Carolyn C. (1988). A whole battalion of stockers': Thomas Blanchard's production line and hand labor at Springfield Armory. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 14(1). pg. 37-57.

Cooper, Carolyn C., Gordon, R.B. and Merrick, H.V. (1982). Archeological evidence of metallurgical innovation at the Eli Whitney Armory. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 8(1). pg. 1-12.

Deyrup, Felicia Johnson. (1948). Arms makers of the Connecticut River Valley. Smith College Studies in History. Vol. 33. Smith College, Northampton, MA.

Drepperd, Carl W. (March 1947). The American rifle and firearms industry. The Chronicle. 3(11). pg. 93-94, 96, 102. X.

Dunlap, Roy F. (1963). Gunsmithing: A manual of firearms design, construction, alteration and remodeling. For amateur and professional gunsmiths and users of modern firearms. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. IS.

Efoulkes, Charles J. (1938). The gunfounders of England. University Press, London.

Edwards, William Bennett. (1962). Civil War guns; the complete story of Federal and Confederate small arms: design, manufacture, identification, procurement, issue, employment, effectiveness, and postwar disposal. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, PA.

Gilbert, Keith Reginald. (1963). The Ames recessing machine: A survivor of the original Enfield Rifle machinery. Technology and Culture. 4. pg. 207-211.

Greener, W.W. (1910). The gun and its development. Reprinted by Bonanza Books, New York, NY. IS.

Guthman, William. (1975). U.S. Army weapons, 1784-1791. The American Society of Arms Collectors.

Hatch, A.P. (1956). Remington arms in american history. New York, NY.

Hubbard, Howard G. (November 1937). Gun flints. The Chronicle. 2(2). pg. 11. IS.

Irwin, John Rice. (1980). Guns and gunmaking tools of Southern Appalachia: The story of the Kentucky rifle. Atglen, PA. Reprinted in 1983 by Schiffer Publishing, Exton, PA.

Kauffman, Henry J. (1924). The Pennsylvania-Kentucky rifle. Dillin Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Kindig, Joe. (1983). Thoughts on the Kentucky rifle in its golden age. G. Shumway, York, PA.

Nonte, George C. Jr. (1978). Pistolsmithing. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. IS.

Raber, Michael S. (1988). Conservative innovators, military small arms, and industrial history at Springfield Armory, 1794-1968. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 14(1). pg. 1-21.

Raber, Michael S., and Raber Associates. (1989). Conservative innovators and military small arms: An industrial history at Springfield Armory, 1794-1968. Unpublished report for the National Park Service. Springfield Armory National Historic Site, South Glastonbury, CT.

Russell, Carl P. (1967). Firearms, traps and tools of the mountain men. Knopf, New York, NY.

Smith, Merritt Roe. (1973). John H. Hall, Simeon North, and the milling machine: The nature of innovation among antebellum arms makers. Technology and Culture. 14. pg. 573-591.

Smith, Merritt Roe. (1977). Harpers Ferry Armory and the new technology: The challenge of change. Ithaca, NY.

Steele, Brett D. (April 1994). Muskets and pendulums: Benjamin Robins, Loenhrad Euler, and the ballistics revolution. Technology and Culture: The International Quarterly of the Society for the History of Technology. 35(2). pg. 348-382. IS.

Swinney, H.J. (March 1999). Gun iron and mild steel. Muzzle Blasts. 60(7). pg. 79-82. Reprinted from Bulletin Number 78 of the American Society of Arms Collectors.

van Patten, R.E. (February 2003). A brief history of swivel guns - circa 1480-1837. Muzzle Blasts. 64(6). pg. 65-66. X.

Williamson, H.F. (1952). Winchester the gun that won the west. Washington, DC.

Hatters

Ogden, Oliver J. (March 1990). Hatters and hat making at the Harmony Society, Economy, Pennsylvania 1826-1875. 43(1). pg. 3-5. IS.

Homemakers

(Also see the Women and Technology bibliography)

Anonymous. (June 1965). Women's world. The Chronicle. 18(2). pg. 23-24. IS.

Anonymous. (September 1965). Women's world. The Chronicle. 18(3). pg. 44-45. IS. Anonymous. (December 1965). Women's world. The Chronicle. 18(4). pg. 55-56. IS. Anonymous. (June 1966). Women's world. The Chronicle. 19(2). pg. 32. IS. Anonymous. (June 1966). Women's world. The Chronicle. 19(3). pg. 45-48. IS. Anonymous. (December 1966). Women's world. The Chronicle. 19(4). pg. 62-63. IS. Anonymous. (March 1970). The churn. The Chronicle. 23(1). pg. 9-10. IS.

Bacon, J. Earle. (August 1942). The busy Yankee girl. The Chronicle. 2(21). pg. 185-186. IS.

Carey, Philip. (1976). The American hearth: Colonial and post-colonial cooking tools. The Broome County Historical Society, Binghamton, NY. IS.

Cooper, Miner J. (March 1963). Laundry irons. The Chronicle. 16(1). pg. 6-7. IS.

Durell, Edward. (September 1962). More irons. The Chronicle. 15(3). pg. 28-30. IS.

Gould, Mary Earle. (September 1960). Larding and larding needles. The Chronicle. 13(3). pg. 33. IS.

Gould, Mary Earle. (December 1961). Mortars and pestles and their many uses. The Chronicle. 14(4). pg. 41-43. IS.

Hynson, Garret. (April 1942). Maine butter molds. The Chronicle. 2(20). pg. 176. IS.

Johnson, Laurence A. (June 1957). The Indian broom. The Chronicle. 10(2). pg. 13-14, 24. IS.

Johnson, Laurence A. (June 1957). Fruit lifters. The Chronicle. 10(3). pg. 28-30. IS.

Keillor, James A. (December 1971). Bread-making tools. The Chronicle. 24(4). pg. 57. IS.

Lessey, Ruth. (December 1961). Hearth ovens. The Chronicle. 14(4). pg. 44. IS.

McConnel, Bridget. (1999). The story of antique needlework tools. Schiffer Publishing, Ltd.

Packham, Jim. (September 1999). Shears and scissors. The Chronicle. 52(3). pg. 100-107. IS.

Whiting, Gertrude. (1928). Old-time tools & toys of needlework. Reprinted in 1971 by Dover Press.

Woloson, Leah. (March 1966). Women's world. The Chronicle. 19(1). pg. 13-14. IS.

Woodhull, Charlotte. (December 1961). Irons. The Chronicle. 14(4). pg. 37-40, 44. IS.

Ice Harvesting

Cummings, Richard O. (1949). The American ice harvests: A study in historical technology, 1800-1918. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Hall, Henry. (1974). The ice industry of the United States, with a brief sketch of its history. Early American Industries Association, from U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Census Division. IS.

Roger, Bob. (September 2007). Patented hand-held ice reducing tools: Part I -- ice picks and chippers.The Chronicle. 60(3). pg. 114-125. IS.

Roger, Bob. (March 2008). Patented hand-held ice-reducing tools: Part III -- ice crushers.The Chronicle. 61(1). pg. 30-34. IS.

Siegel, Bob Jr. (April 1971). Ice from nature to consumer -- tools and methods. The Chronicle. 24(1). pg. 1-5.IS.

Inventors and Inventions

Doster, Alexis, III, Goodwin, Joe and Ross, Jane M. Eds. (1978). The Smithsonian Book of Invention. Smithsonian Exposition Books, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. IS.

 
Eco, Umberto and Zorzoli, G.B. (1962). The picture history of inventions: From plough to polaris. Translated from Italian by Anthony Lawrence. The Macmillan Company, NY, NY. IS.

Newcomen Society. (1928). Martin Triewald’s short description of the atmospheric engine. Translated from the edition of 1734. Courier, London.

Usher, A.P. (1954). A history of mechanical inventions. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Knives and Swords
Also see cutlers, crooked knives, and Vol. 11: Handbook for Ironmongers.

Hrisoulas, James. (1987). The complete bladesmith: Forging your way to perfection. Paladin Press, Boulder, CO.

Hrisoulas, James. (1994). The pattern-welded blade: Artistry in iron. Paladin Press, Boulder, CO.

Hrisoulas, James. (2005). The master bladesmith: Advanced studies in steel. Paladin Press, Boulder, CO.

Kapp, Leon, Kapp, Hiroko and Yoshihara, Yoshindo. (1987). The craft of the Japanese sword. Kodansha International, Tokyo, Japan.

Kapp, Leon, Kapp, Hiroko and Yoshihara, Yoshindo. (2002). Modern Japanese swords and swordsmiths: From 1868 to the present. Kodansha International, Tokyo, Japan.

Kertzman, Joe. (2007). Art of the knife. Krause Publications.

rvine, Gregory. (2000). The Japanese sword: The soul of the Samurai. V&A Publications, London.

Nagayama, Kokan. (1997). The connoisseur's book of Japanese swords. Kodansha International, Tokyo, Japan.

Neumann, George C. (1973). Swords and blades of the American Revolution. David & Charles, Newton Abbott, UK. Reprinted in 1991 by Rebel Pub. Co., Texarkana, TX. W.

Reibold, M., Paufler, P., Levin, A. A., Kochmann, W., Pätzke, M. and Meyer, D. C. (November 2006). Carbon nanotubules in an ancient Damascus sabre. Nature.

Shackeford, Steve. (2010). Spirit of the sword: A celebration of artistry and craftsmanship. Krause Publications.

Stone, George Cameron. (1999). A glossary of the construction, decoration, and use of arms and armor in all countries in all times. Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.

Sukhanov, I. P. (2004). Masterpieces and rarities of edged weaponry from the funds of St. Petersburg museums, art manufacturers and private collections.

Turnbull, Stephen. (2004). Samurai: The story of Japan's great warriors. Sterling Publishing Co., New York, NY. IS.

Y. al-Hassan, Ahmad and Hill, Donald R. (1992). Islamic technology: An illustrated history. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.

Lighting Devices

Thuro, Catherine. (1976). Oil lamps: The kerosene era in North America. Collector Books, A Division of Schroeder Publishing Co., Inc., Paducah, KY. IS.

Locksmith

American Lock Collector's Association. Journal of Lock Collecting. 8576 Barbara Dr., Mentor, OH 44060.

Stewart, Don. (1994). Collectors guide to handcuffs & restraints. Key Collectors International Publications, Phoenix, AZ.

Stewart, Don. (1983). Collector guide, ship locks & keys. Key Collectors International Publications, Phoenix, AZ.

Stewart, Don. (1982). Collectors Guide to Yale Prison Jail Locks & Keys, 1884-1957. Key Collectors International Publications, Phoenix, AZ. (A list of Don Stewart books may be found at http://alcalocks.com/books/kci_books.pdf)

Loggers and Timber Harvesting (Lumbering)
Also see sawyers and the special topics bibliography on the Mast Trade.

Adams, Peter. (1981). Early loggers and the sawmill. The Early Settler Life Series. Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, NY. IS.

Andrews, Ralph Warren. (date unknown). This was logging. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Andrews, Ralph Warren. (1956). Glory days of logging. Bonanza Books, NY, NY. IS.

Andrews, Ralph Warren. (1968). Timber: Toil and trouble in the big woods. Bonanza Books, NY, NY. IS.

Bawden, Frank G. (September 1976). Cutting and hewing timber. The Chronicle. 29(3). pg. 35-9. IS.

Beaudry, Michael. (2002). The axe wielder's handbook. Horizon Publishers, Bountiful, UT. IS.

Blodgett, Wentworth P. (March 1964). Thoroughshot and boom auger. The Chronicle. 17(1). pg. 9. IS.

Bryant, Ralph Clement. (1913). Logging: The principles and general methods of operation in the United States. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. IS.

Candee, Richard M. (1969 - 1970). Merchant and millwright: The water-powered sawmills of the Piscatauqua. Old-Time New England. 60. pg. 131 - 149.

Delson, Barnet. (September 1968). Colonial felling axes. The Chronicle. 21(3). pg. 37-38. IS.

Foley, V. and Moyer, R.H. (June 1977). The American axe. Was it better? CEAIA. 30. pg. 28-32.

Forman, Benno M. (1969 - 1970). Mill sawing in seventeenth century Massachusetts. Old-Time New England. 60. pg. 110 - 130.

Georgia-Pacific. (1974). Special edition for the American bicentennial: Forest products industry museums, displays and exhibits in the United States. Georgia-Pacific, Portland, OR. IS.

Hamilton, Edward P. (1964). The village mill in early New England. Old Sturbridge Village Booklet Series, Old Sturbridge, Inc., Sturbridge, CT.

Heavrin, Charles A. (September 1982). The felling axe in America. CEAIA. 35. pg. 43-53.

Hempstead, Alfred Geer. (1975). The Penobscot boom and the development of the West Branch of the Penobscot River for log driving 1825 - 1931. Down East, Camden, ME. IS(2).

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. (1902). Handbook for lumbermen with a treatise on the construction of saws and how to keep them in order. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. Reprinted in 1994. IS.

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. (1907). Handbook for lumbermen with a treatise on the construction of saws and how to keep them in order. Reprinted in 1983 by Mid-West Tool Collectors Association. IS.

Hiton, C. Max . (1942). Rough pulpwood operating in northwestern Maine 1935-1940. The Maine Bulletin. 45(1). IS.

Holbrook, Stewart H. (1961). Yankee loggers: A recollection of woodsmen, cooks, and river drivers. International Paper Company, NY, NY. IS.

Holbrook, Stewart H. (1962). The American lumberjack. Collier Books, NY, NY. IS.

Hughson, John W. and Bond, Courtney, C.J. (1965). Hurling down the pine: The story of the Wright, Gilmour and Hughson families, timber and lumber manufacturers in the Hull and Ottawa region and on the Gatineau River, 1800-1920. The Historical Society of the Gatineau, Old Chelsea, Quebec, Canada.

Johnson, Kevin. (2007). Early logging tools. Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA.

Penn, Theodore Z. and Parks, Roger. (1975). The Nichols-Colby sawmill in Bow, New Hampshire. IA, Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 1. pg. 1-12.

Peterson, Charles E. (1975). Early lumbering: A pictorial essay. In: Hindle, Brooke, Ed. America's wooden age: Aspects of its early technology. Sleepy Hollow Restorations, Tarrytown, NY. IS.

Phelps, Hermann. (1982). The craft of log building. Lee Valley Tools, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Poirer, Noel. (June 2001). The colonial timberyards in America. The Chronicle. 54(2). pg. 54-59. IS.

Rivard, Paul E. (1990). Maine sawmills: A history. Maine State Museum, Augusta, ME. IS.

Simmons, Fred C. (1951). Northeastern loggers' handbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 6. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Smith, David C. (1972). A history of lumbering in Maine 1861-1960. Maine Studies No. 93. University of Maine Press, Orono, ME. W.

Smith, Joseph Coburn. (December 1972, June 1973, September 1973). The Maine woodsmen. The Chronicle. In: Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl, Eds. (1991). Selections from The Chronicle: The fascinating world of early tools and trades. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Williams, Richard L. (1976). The loggers. Time-Life Books, NY, NY.

Wood, Richard G. (1935). A history of lumbering in Maine, 1820-1861. University Press [of Maine], Orono, ME. Reprinted on April 10, 1961 in The Maine Bulletin, Maine Studies No. 33. IS.

Machinists and Machinery
(also see Measuring and Drafting, Metallurgy, and Engineering)

Battison, Edwin A. (1966). Eli Whitney and the milling machine. Smithsonian Journal of History. 1. pg. 9-34.

Battison, Edwin A. (October 1973). The cover design: A new look at the 'Whitney' milling machine. Technology and Culture. 14(4). pg. 592-598.

Blanchard, Clarence, Ed. (Spring 2006). Gerstner machinist boxes. The Fine Tool Journal. 55(4). pg. 20-1. IS.

Burlingame, Luther D. (August 6, 1914). Pioneer steps toward the attainment of accuracy. American Machinist. 41. pg. 237 - 243.

Cope, Kenneth L. (1993). American machinist's tools: An illustrated directory of patents. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Cope, Kenneth L. (1994). Makers of American machinist's tools: A historical directory of makers and their tools. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Cope, Kenneth L. (1998). More makers of American machinist's tools: Part two of a historical directory of makers and their tools. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS. Drepperd, Carl W. (July 1948). Tools and standards. The Chronicle. 3(16). pg. 137-138. IS.

Foley, Vernard. (July 1983). Leonardo, the wheel lock, and the milling process. Technology and Culture. 24. pg. 399-427.

Gordon, Robert B. (1991). Machine archeology: The John Gage planer. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 17(2). pg. 3-14.

Greenfield Tap & Die. (1969). Facts about taps & tapping. Greenfield Tap & Die, Greenfield, MA. IS.

Holtzapffel, Charles and Holtzapffel, John Jacob. (1846-1847). Turning and mechanical manipulation. 5 vols. Holtzapffel & Co., London.

Kearney & Trecker Corp. (1957). Milling practice series: Book one: Right and wrong in milling practice. Kearney & Trecker Corp., Milwaukee, WI. IS.

Kearney & Trecker Corp. (1957). Milling practice series: Book two: The milling machine and its attachments. Kearney & Trecker Corp., Milwaukee, WI. IS.

Kennametal Inc. (1965). Kennametal tool application handbook. No. 9. Latrobe, PA. IS.

Lukin, James. (n.d.). Turning lathes: A guide to turning, screw cutting, metal spinning & ornamental turning. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. W.

Roe, Joseph Wickham. (1916). English and American tool builders: The men who created machine tools. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. Reprinted in 1987 by Lindsay Publications, Bradley, IL. W.

Rose, Joshua. (1887-1888). Modern machine-shop practice. 2 vols. C. Scribner's Sons, NY, NY.

South Bend Lathe Works. (1958). How to run a lathe: Revised edition 55: The care and operation of a screw-cutting lathe. South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, IN. IS.

Sparey, Lawrence H. (undated). The amateur's lathe. Pitman Publishing Corporation, London. IS.

L.S. Starret Company. (1968). The Starret Book for Student Machinists. L.S. Starret Company, Athol, MA. IS.

Turner, Frederick W. (1941). Machine shop work: A comprehensive treatise on approved shop methods including construction and use of tools and machines, details of their efficient operation and a discussion of modern production methods. American Technical Society, Chicago, IL. IS.

Turner, Gerard L’e. (2000). Elizabethan instrument makers. The origins of the London trade in precision instrument making. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Wagener, Albert M. and Arthur, Harlan R. (1941). Machine shop theory and practice. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Woodbury, Robert S. (1958). History of the gear-cutting machine; a historical study in geometry and machines. Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. W.

Woodbury, Robert S. (1960). History of the milling machine; a study in technical development. Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. W.

Woodbury, Robert S. (1961). History of the lathe to 1850: A study in the growth of a technical element of an industrial economy. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA. W.

Woodbury, Robert S. (1972). Studies in the history of machine tools. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA. W.

Measuring and Drafting Tools

Aiken, Ken. (Fall 2000). From gauges to scales. Fine Tool Journal. 50(2). pg. 6-9. IS.

Butterworth, Dale and Blanchard, Clarence. (Fall 2005). Central Maine log rule makers and their rules. The Fine Tool Journal. pg. 11-14. IS.

Butterworth, Dale and Whalen, Tom. (2007). From logs to lumber: A history of people & rule making in New England. Agicook Press, Marshfield, MA. IS.

Cajori, Florian. (1910). A history of the logarithmic slide rule. Reprinted by the Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Cannon, Phil. (Fall 2001). Features of some 19th century carpenter rules. The Fine Tool Journal. 51(2). pg. 9. IS.

Eugene Dietzgen Co. (no date). Use and care of drawing instruments with instructive exercises. Eugene Dietzgen Co., Chicago, IL. IS.

Gordon, Robert B. (1988). Gaging, measurement and the control of artificer's work in manufacturing. Polhem. 6. pg. 159-172. W.

Gordon, Robert B. (1997). Who turned the mechanical ideal into mechanical reality? In: Cutcliffe, Stephen H. and Reynolds, Terry S., Eds. Technology & American history: A historical anthology from Technology & Culture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. IS.

Hallam, Douglas J. (1984). The first 200 years. A short history of Rabone Chesterman Limited. Birmingham, UK.

Hambly, Maya. (1988). Drawing instruments: 1580-1980. Sotheby's Publications, London. IS.

Hodgson, Fred T. (1890). Steel squares and their uses. Industrial Publication Co., NY, NY. W.

Hopp, Peter M. (date unknown). Slide rules: Their history, models, and makers. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Hoppus, E. (1820). Hoppus's tables for measuring or practical measuring made easy, by a new set of tables: Which shew at sight the solid content of any piece of timber, stone, &c. either square, round, or unequal-sided, and the value at any price per foot cube; also, the superficial content of boards, glass, painting, plastering, &c. with copious explanations of the uses and applications of the tables. Contrived to answer all the occasions of gentlemen and artificers, the contents being given in feet, inches, and twelfth parts of an inch. With some very curious observations concerning measuring of timber by several dimensions. 17th Edition. London. IS.

International Correspondence Schools. (1921). How to use the steel square. David McKay Company, Philadelphia, PA. IS.

Kebabian, Paul B. (June 1988). The English carpenter's rule: Notes on its origin. The Chronicle. 41(2). pg. 24-27. IS.

Kebabian, Paul B. (March 1989). Further notes on the early English three fold ship carpenter's rule. The Chronicle. 42(1). pg. 3. IS.

Kisch, Bruno. (1965). Scales and weights: A historical outline. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. IS.

Klein, Herbert Arthur. (1989). The science of measurement: A historical survey. Dover, NY, NY.

McConnell, Don. (Fall 2005). The Carpenter's rule in London: 1537-1602. The Fine Tool Journal. pg. 7-10. IS.

More, Richard. (1602). The carpenter’s rule. Felix Kingston, London, UK.

Rees, Jane and Rees, Mark. (2010). The rule book: Measuring for the trades. Astragal Press, Lakeville, MN. IS.

Rabone, John & Sons. (1880). The carpenter's slide rule: Its history and use. Third Edition. Reprinted in 1982 by Ken Roberts Publishing Co., Fitzwilliam, NH. IS.

von Jezierski, Dieter. (1977). Slide rules: A journey through three centuries. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Zupko, Ronald Edward. (1977). British weights & measures: A history from antiquity to the seventeenth century. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. IS.

Mechanics

Dugas, Rene. (1955). A history of mechanics. Dover Publications, NY, NY. Reprinted in 1988.

Henry Ford Trade School. (1942). Shop theory: Revised edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Hubbard, Howard G. (January 1938). The first internal combustion engine. The Chronicle. 2(3). pg. 17, 19-20. IS.

Overman, Frederick. (1851). Mechanics for the millwright, machinist, engineer, civil engineer, architect and student, containing a clear elementary exposition of the principles and practice of building machines. Lippincott, Grambo, Philadelphia, PA.

Young, F. (1882). Every man his own mechanic. London.

Metalworking (Metallurgy)
This section has been moved into a separate bibliography on Metallurgy found in Vol. 11, Handbook for Ironmongers.

Milliners
(also see Flax dressing, and Textiles)

Walker, Niki. (2001). The milliner. Crabtree Publishing Company, NY, NY. IS.

Mills and Milling (food)

McGuire, Barton. (1973). A mill primer. Early Trades and Crafts Society, NY. IS.

Storck, John and Teague, Walter D. (1952). Flour for man's bread: A history of milling. Publisher unknown, Minneapolis, MN.

Nails and Nailmaking

Cooke, Lawrence S. (March 1961). Nail rod and some of its by-products. The Chronicle. 14(1). pg. 6-7. IS.

DeValinger, Leon, Jr. (June 1960). Nail-making device at the Delaware State Museum. The Chronicle. 13(2). pg. 17. IS.

Didsbury, J. (December 1959). The French method of nail-making. The Chronicle. 12(4). pg. 47-48. IS.

Wilson, Kenneth. (June 1960). Nailers' anvils at Old Sturbridge Village. The Chronicle. 13(2). pg. 17-19, 25, 27, 28. IS.

Papermaking

Foster, Charles I. (July 1947). Paper Industry I, 1810 - 1860. The Chronicle. 3(12). pg. 103, 105-109. IS.

Foster, Charles I. (September 1947). Paper Industry II, 1810 - 1860. The Chronicle. 3(13). pg. 113-114, 117-118. IS.

Hunter, Dard. (1957). Papermaking: The history and technique of an ancient craft. Alfred A. Knopf, NY, NY. IS.

Osborne, William C. (1974). The paper plantation: Ralph Nader's study group report on the pulp and paper industry in Maine. Viking, NY, NY.

Smith, David C. (1970). History of papermaking in the United States, 1691-1969. Lockwood Pub. Co., NY, NY.

Patternmaking
Also see foundry operations.

(1927). Patternmaking: Methods, materials and equipment. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA.

Barrows, Frank Wilson. (1906). Practical pattern making: Fully illustrated by engravings made from special drawings for this work by the author. The N.W. Henley Publishing Company, NY, NY.

Ritchey, James, Monroe, Walter M. and Beese, Charles W. (1940). Pattern making: A practical treatise for the pattern maker on woodworking and wood turning, tools and equipment, construction of simple and complicated patterns, modern molding machines and molding practice. American Technical Society, Chicago, IL. IS.

Rose, Joshua. (1889). The pattern maker's assistant: Embracing lathe work, branch work, core work, sweep work; and practical gear construction; and the preparation and use of tools. Sixth edition. Reprinted in 1995 by The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Willard, G.H. (1910). Pattern-making. Popular Mechanics Company, Chicago, IL. IS.

Pewter

Laughlin, Ledlie Irwin. (1981). Pewter in America. American Legacy Press, New York, NY. IS.

Montgomery, Charles F. (1973). A history of American pewter. Praeger Publishers, New York, NY. IS.

Planemaking

Armour, W.J. (January 15, 1898). Practical plane making. Work, The Illustrated Journal for Mechanics. XV(461). Reprinted in 1985 in Newsletter No. 11, Tool and Trades History Society.

Bates, Alan G. (1986). Plane making styles. Newsletter Nos. 14 & 15. Tool and Trades History Society.

Carter, Matthew. (June 1983). British planemakers before 1700. The Chronicle. 36(2). pg. 27-30.

Chemeng County Historical Society. (1983). Shavings from the past. The wooden plane collection of the Chemeng County Historical Society and the DeWitt Historical Society of Tompkins County. The Chemeng County Historical Society and the DeWitt Historical Society of Tompkins County, in cooperation with the Early American Industries Association, Ithaca, NY. IS.

Greber, Josef M. (1956). Die geshichtes des hobels. Seth Burchard, trans. The history of the woodworking plane. VSSM - Verlag, Zurich. Reprinted in German in 1956 by Verlag Th. Scäfer, Hanover, Germany. The English translation was printed by the Early American Industries Association in 1991. IS.

Goodman, W.L. (1968). British planemakers from 1700. Third Edition enlarged and revised by Jane & Mark Rees, published by Roy Arnold in 1993, Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Goodman, William L. (November 1972). Woodworking apprentices and their tools in Bristol, Norwich, Great Yarmouth and Southampton, 1535-1650. Industrial Archaeology. 9. pg. 391-392.

Hack, Garrett. (1997). The handplane book. Taunton Press, Newtown, CT. IS(2).

Heckel, Dave. (Fall 2001). Sargent Craftsman planes. The Fine Tool Journal. 51(2). pg. 24. IS.

Hilton, William B. (1977). Index of plane and spoke shave patents 1812 to 1910. Published by William B. Hilton, Lynn, MA. IS.

Humphrey, Michael R. (1991 - 1998). The catalog of American wooden planes. Bacon Street Press, Sherborn, MA.

Ingraham, Ted. (June 2008). Plane chatter: The mother lode. The Chrionicle. 61(2). pg. 83-85. IS.

Kauffmann, Henry J. (April 1953). Some notes on American plane makers. The Chronicle. 6(2). pg. 30-31. IS.

Lampert, Nigel. Through much tribulation: Stewart Spiers and the planemakers of Ayr. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Lasswell, Pat. (Fall 2000). The patterns in imprints. Sign of the Jointer. 2(3). pg. 76-80. IS.

Moody, John A. (1981). American cabinetmaker's plane, its design and development: 1700-1900. The Tool Box, Evansville, IN.

Moody, John A. (1981). The American cabinetmakers Plow plane. Its design and improvement 1700-1900. The Tool Box, Evansville, IN.

Parke, David L. (1981). Wooden planes at the Farmers' Museum. Farmers' Museum, Cooperstown, NY.

Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl. (1994). A guide to the makers of American wooden planes, third edition. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl. (2001). A guide to the makers of American wooden planes, fourth edition. Revised by Thomas L. Elliott. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS. Powell, John. (1986). Plane making styles. Newsletter No. 15. Tool and Trades History Society.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (1975). Wooden planes in 19th century America. Ken Roberts Publishing Co., Fitzwilliam, NH. IS.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (1978). Wooden planes in 19th century America, volume II: Planemaking by the Chapins at Union Factory, 1826 - 1929. Ken Roberts Publishing Co., Fitzwilliam, NH. Roberts, Warren E. (1986). Planemaking in the United States: The cartography of a craft. Material Culture. 18(3). pg. 167 - 185. IS.

Rosebrook, Donald and Fisher, Dennis. (2003). Wooden plow planes: A celebration of the planemakers' art. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Sellens, Alvin. (1978). Woodworking planes: A descriptive register of wooden planes. Self-published, 234 Clark St., Augusta, KS. IS.

Smith, Roger K. (1981-1992). Patented transitional & metallic planes in America 1827 - 1927. 2 vols. North Village Publishing Co., Lancaster, MA. IS.

Smith, Roger K. (Spring 1989). Transitional and metal planes: Stanley no. 18 and no. 19 knuckle-joint block planes, general information and type study. Plane Talk. 13(1). pg. 155-162. IS.

Van der Sterre, Gerrit. (2001). Four centuries of Dutch planes and planemakers. Primavera Pers, Netherlands. IS.

Van der Sterre, Gerrit. (2001). Four centuries of Dutch planes and planemakers. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Welsh, Peter C. (Winter 1966). The metallic woodworking plane. Technology and Culture. 7(1). pg. 38-47. W.

West, Phillip. (September 1998). Pioneers in planemaking. The Chronicle. 51(3). pg. 69-71.

Whelan, John M. (date unknown). Making traditional wooden planes. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Whelan, John M. (1993). The wooden plane: Its history, form & function. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Wildung, Frank H. (April 1955). Making wood planes in America. The Chronicle. 8(2). pg. 19-21. IS.

Wildung, Frank H. (July 1955). Making wood planes in America (continued). The Chronicle. 8(3). pg. 28-30. IS.

Wing, Anne and Wing, Donald. (date unknown). The case for Francis Purdew or granfurdeus disputatus. Self-published? X.

Wing, Anne and Wing, Donald. (2005). Early planemakers of London: Recent discoveries in the Tallow Chandlers and the Joiners Companies. The Mechanik's Workbench, Marion, MA. IS.

Plastics

Couzens, E. G. and Yarsley, V. E. (1942). Plastics. Pelican Books, London.

Couzens, E. G. and Yarsley, V. E. (1968). Plastics in the modern world: A completely revised edition of plastics in the service of man. Penguin Books, Baltimore, MD.

Pliers

Hewertson, Warren. (2008). A short history of multigrip pliers. The Tool Chest. 88. pg. 1.

Hewertson, Warren, Hawking, John and Radion, George. (2008). Multigrips in Australia. In: Hand Tools – Our Heritage Celebrating the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the HTPAA. Victoria, Australia.

Hewertson, Warren and Radion, George. (2010). The first true multigrip pliers. The Tool Chest. 98. pg. 7.

Hewertson, Warren and Radion, George. (June 2013). A history of water pump pliers. The Chronicle. 66(2). pg. 56-79.

Plumbing and Heating

Graham, Frank D. and Emery, Thomas J. (1925). Audels plumbers and steam fitters guide #3: A practical illustrated trade assistant and ready reference for master plumbers, journeymen and apprentices steam fitters, gas fitters and helpers, sheet metal workers and draughtsmen master builders and engineers explaining in practical concise language and by well done illustrations, diagrams, charts graphs and pictures the principles of modern plumbing practice. Theo. Audel & Co., NY, NY. Reprinted in 1946. IS.

Graham, Frank D. and Emery, Thomas J. (1938). Audels Plumbers and Steam Fitters Guide # 1. Theo. Audel & Co., Publishers, New York, NY. IS.

Graham, Frank D. and Emery, Thomas J. (1938). Audels Plumbers and Steam Fitters Guide # 4. Theo. Audel & Co., Publishers, New York, NY. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1916). Pipe fitting tools and piping. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1916). Plumbing plans and inspection. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1921). Plumbing tools and materials. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1922). Pipework and lead work. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1928). Boilers and fittings. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1928). Pipe-fitting practice. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1928). Radiators and fittings. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1929). Heat and steam generation. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1929). Steam-heating pipe systems. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

I. C. S. Staff. (1929). Vacuum and hot water systems. International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. IS.

Potters

Branin, M. Lelyn. (1978). The early potters and potteries of Maine. Maine Heritage Series No. 3, Maine State Museum, Augusta, ME. IS(2).

Guilland, Harold F. (1971). Early American folk pottery. Chilton Book Company, NY, NY. IS.

Watkins, Lura Woodside. (April 1945). Early New England redware potters. The Chronicle. 3(3). pg. 21, 30, 32-33, 36. X.

Quarrying

Armstrong, Army. (2002). Film: Granite by the sea: The history of granite quarrying on Vinalhaven Island. Vinalhaven Historical Society, Vinalhaven, ME.

Bunting, William H. (March 2003). Hallowell Granite Works Stinchfield Quarry. The Chronicle. 56(1). pg. 40-41. IS.

Gage, Mary E. and Gage, James. (2002). The art of splitting stone: Early rock quarrying methods in pre-industrial New England 1630-1825. Powwow River Books, Amesbury, MA.

Gage, Mary E. and Gage, James. (2003). Stories carved in stone. Powwow River Books, Amesbury, MA.

Grindle, Roger L. (1977). Tombstones and paving blocks: The history of the Maine granite industry. Courier-Gazette, Rockland, ME. IS.

Wood, Paul. (June 2006). Tools and machinery of the granite industry. The Chronicle. 59(2). pg. 37-52. IS.

Wood, Paul. (September 2006). Tools and machinery of the granite industry, part II. The Chronicle. 59(3). pg. 81-96. IS.

Wood, Paul. (March 2007). Tools and machinery of the granite industry, part IV. The Chronicle. 60(1). pg. 10-32. IS.

Railroads

Botkin, B. A. and Harlow, Alvin F. (1989). A treasury of railroad folklore; the stories, tall tales, traditions, ballads, and songs of the American railroad. Bonanza Books, New York, NY. IS.

Clarke, Thomas Curtis. (1988). The American railway; its construction, development, management, and appliances. Castle, Secaucus, NJ. IS.

Hastings, Paul. (1972). Railroads; an international history. Praeger Publishers Inc, New York, NY. IS.

Penney, A. R. (1988). A history of the Newfoundland railway; volume I (1881-1923). Harry Cuff Publications Ltd, St. John's, Canada. IS.

Poor, Henry Varnum. (1860). History of the railroads and canals of the United States of America. Augustus M. Kelley Publishers, New York, NY. IS.

Stephens, Carlene. (1989). Most reliable time: William Bond, the New England railroads, and time awareness in 19th-century America. Technology and Culture. 30. pg. 1-24.

Raw Material Preparation

Kemper, Jackson, III. (n.d.) American charcoal making. Eastern National Park and Monument Association, Hopewell Village, PA.

Van Wagenen, Jared. (July 1947). Potash manufacture. The Chronicle. 3(12). pg. 106, 109. IS.

Van Wagenen, Jared. (September 1947). The charcoal burner. The Chronicle. 3(13). pg. 113, 118. IS.

Van Wagenen, Jared. (April 1949). The old-time tanner. The Chronicle. 3(19). pg. 161, 164. IS.

Rope Making and Sail Making

Ashley, Clifford W. (1944). The Ashley book of knots.  Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, NY. IS.

Beecher, Mark H. (December 1972). Hand rope making. The Chronicle. 25(4). pg. 58-62. IS.

Brewington, M. V. (June 1950). The sailmaker's gear. The Chronicle. 3(23). pg. 205-213. IS.

Brewington, M. V. (September 1950). The sailmaker's gear. The Chronicle. 3(24). pg. 217-221, 223. IS.
 

Hasluck, Paul N., Ed. (no date). Knotting and splicing ropes and cordage. David McKay Company, Philadelphia, PA. IS.

Mikelson, Bob. (September 1971). Sailmaking and sailmaker's tools. The Chronicle. 24(3). pg. 29-33. IS.

Orr, Mathew and Ratsey, Thomas W. (1852). Observations on sails, sail cloth & flax. A. Mackenzie & Co., Greenock, England. (1924). Mr. Thomas Ratsey on sail making in The Field Magazine. Reprinted as An historic reprint: Observations on sails, sail cloth & sailmaking in 2006 by Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #5. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2003). Sailmaker's seam rubbers. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #1. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2004). Some notes on the rogue's yarn. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #2. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2004). Sailmaker's needles. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #3. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2006). Marline spikes, fids & other related tools. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #4. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2008). Sail hooks: Sailmaker's bench hooks. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #6. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2009). Sailors' rope mats from yarns, strands and sennit. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #7. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Pawson, Des. (2010). Sailmaker's palms. Museum of Knots & Sailor's Ropework. Monograph #8. Footrope Knots, Ipswich, England. IS.

Sprague, William B. (February 1940). The rope maker. The Chronicle. 2(13). pg. 97, 100-101. IS.

Sawyers (Saws)

Andrews, Ralph Warren. (1957). This was sawmilling. Superior Pub. Co., Seattle, WA.

Baader, William. (September 1968). Early saws. The Chronicle. 21(3). pg. 38-39. IS.

Baker, Phil. (June 2005). The 19th century American backsaw. The Gristmill. 9. pg. 24-29. IS.

Baker, Phil. (Spring 2005). The 19th-century American back saw. The Fine Tool Journal. pg. 6. IS.

Baker, Phil. (Fall 2005). Oh!! If a saw could talk. The Fine Tool Journal. pg. 15. IS.

Baker, Phil. (2006). The nineteenth-century American backsaw. The Chronicle, 59(1). pg. 13. IS.

Baker, Phil. (Spring 2006). The backsaw blade: Tapered & parallel. The Fine Tool Journal. 55(4). pg. 26. IS.

Baker, Phil. (June 2009). Nickel-plated backsaws. The Chronicle. 62(2). pg. 74-5. IS.

Bale, M. Powis. (1880). Woodworking machinery its rise, progress, and construction with hints on the management of saw mills and the economical conversion of timber. Crosby Lockwood and Co., London. Reprinted in 1992 by Glen Moor Press, Lakewood, CO. IS.

Batory, Dana Martin. (Fall 2009). In search of the modern tilting jigsaw. The Fine Tool Journal. 59(2). pg. 16-9. IS.

Disston, Henry & Sons. (1916). The saw in history. Philadelphia, PA. Reprinted in April 1978 by the Midwest Tool Collector's Association and the Early American Industries Association. IS(2).

Disston, Henry & Sons. (1922). Saw, tool and file book. Philadelphia, PA.

Drabble & Sanderson. (1925). The saw doctor's handbook.

Ewan, N.R. (May 1941). Up-and-down saw mills.The Chronicle. 2(17). pg. 137, 144. IS.

Friberg, Todd L. (2000). Patented American saw sets, an illustrated patent directory 1812 - 1925. Early American Industry Association, Murphy, NC.

Grimshaw, Robert. (1881). Saws; The history, and development etc. Philadelphia, PA.

Grimshaw, Robert. (1901). Saw-filing and management of saws: A practical treatise on filing, gumming, swaging, hammering, and the brazing of band saws, the speed, work, and power to run circular saws, etc., etc. H.W. Henley & Co., NY, NY.

(November 30, 1870). Ironmonger. 12. pg. 1009-1011.

(October 25, 1871). Ironmonger. 13. pg. 912.

James Leffel & Co. (1874, 1881). Leffel's construction of mill dams and Bookwalter's millwright and mechanic. Reprinted in 2001 by the Early American Industry Association, Murphy, NC.

Jones, P. d'A and Simons, E.N. (1960/1). The story of the saw. Spear & Jackson, Ltd., Sheffield, UK.

Kebabian, John S. (March 1973). An early Philadelphia pit-saw. CEAIA. 26. pg. 13-14.

Kebabian, John S. (September 1973). Sawmills -- early and not so early. The Chronicle. 26(3). pg. 41-45. IS.

Kellogg, Elijah. (1867-1883). Uncle Seth builds a sawmill. Reprinted in 1973. Prepared for April 24, 1973 meeting of the Early Trades & Crafts Society. IS.

Lamond, Tom. (June 2005). When does a nib become a nub? The Gristmill. 9. pg. 12. IS.

Nicholson File Company. (1959). Sawology: A Nicholson handbook. Nicholson File Company, Providence, RI. IS.

Roberts, Robert W. (December 1970). The up and down sawmill. The Chronicle. 23(4). pg. 49-51. IS.

Schaffer, Erwin L. (1999). Hand-saw makers of North America. Osage Press, Rockford, IL. IS.

Simonds Saw and Steel Company. (1929). The cross-cut saw. Simonds Saw and Steel Company, Fitchburg, MA. IS.

Simonds Saw and Steel Company. (1937). The circular saw: A guide book for filers, sawyers and woodworkers. Simonds Saw and Steel Company, Fitchburg, MA. IS.

Simonds Saw and Steel Company. (1937). How to file a cross-cut saw. Simonds Saw and Steel Company, Fitchburg, MA. IS.

Simonds Saw and Steel Company. (1937). Woodworking saws and planer knives: Their care and use. Simonds Saw and Steel Company, Fitchburg, MA. IS.

Stubbs, Graham. (June 2006). American bucksaws. The Chronicle. 59(2). pg. 59-69. IS.

Taran, Pete. (Winter 2001). Disston type study: The medallions: Part one. Fine Tool Journal. 50(3). pg. 10-13. IS.

The Tool Chest. (November 1999). Mr. Disston's view of saw nibs. The Tool Chest. 54. pg. 32.

Scientific Instruments

Bedini, Silvio. (1964). Early American scientific instruments. Washington, DC.

Bion, N. (1758). The construction and principal uses of mathematical instruments, N. Bion: Translated and supplemented by Edmund Stone, 2nd Ed., 1758. Reprinted by Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Cohen, I. Bernard. (1950). Some early tools of science. Cambridge, MA.

Turner, Gerard L'E. (date unknown). Scientific instruments 1500 - 1900: An introduction. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Screwdrivers

Robinson, Trevor. (June 1996). The ratchet screwdriver. The Chronicle. 49(2). pg. 54-57. IS.

Rybczynski, Witold. (2000). One good turn: A natural history of the screwdriver and the screw. Scribner, NY, NY. IS.

Sheet Metal Working
(also see Machinists)

Dyer, Herbert J. (1951). How to work sheet metal: A practical man's description of metal working practice "straight from the bench". Model & Allied Publications Ltd., Hertfordshire, England. IS.

Graham, Frank D. and Anderson, Edwin P. (1942). Audels sheet metal workers handy book. Theodore Audel & Co., Division of Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., New York, NY. 1968 printing. IS.

Woodworth, J.V. (1910). Dies, their construction and use for the modern working of sheet metals. Norman W. Henley Publishing, NY.

Ships, Shipbuilding, and Shipwrights
Also see Vol. 7, Art of the Edge Tool.

Abell, Sir Westcott. (1948). The shipwright's trade. The University Press, Cambridge, England, UK. IS.

Ansel, Will. (2009). What boat carpenters argue about or I never saw it done that way before. Self-published. IS.

American Bureau of Shipping. (1982). Rules for building and classing steel vessels. American Bureau of Shipping, New York, NY. IS.

Anderson, J. W. (1911). Shipmasters' business companion. James Brown & Son, Glasgow, UK. IS.

Anderson, Romola and Anderson, R.C. (1947). The sailing-ship: Six thousand years of history. Robert M. McBride & Company, NY, NY. IS.

Bass, George F., Ed. (1972). A history of seafaring based on underwater archaeology. Walker and Company, New York, NY. IS.

Bradford, Gershom. (1927). A glossary of sea terms. Rumford Press, Concord, NH. IS.

Bradford, Gershom. (1972). The mariner's dictionary. Barre Publishers, Barre, MA. IS.

Brady, William. (1847). The kedge-anchor; or, young sailors' assistant. Reprinted in 2002 by Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY. IS.

Brewington, M.V. (June 1962). The log canoe builder and his canoe. The Chronicle. 15(2). pg. 13-15. IS.

Butler, Joyce. (1993). William E. Barry's sketch of an old river with an illustrated essay shipbuilding on the Kennebunk. The Brick Store Museum, West Kennebunk, ME. IS.

Chapelle, Howard I. (1930). The Baltimore Clipper, its origin and development. Marine Research Society, Salem, MA.

Chapelle, Howard I. (1935). The history of American sailing ships. Bonanza Books, New York, NY.

Chapelle, Howard I. (1941). Boatbuilding: A complete handbook of wooden boat construction. Reprinted in 1969 by W. W. Norton & Co., NY, NY.

Chapelle, Howard I. (1951). American small sailing craft: Their design, development, and construction. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., NY. IS.

Chapelle, Howard I. (1960). The national watercraft collection. United States National Museum Bulletin 219. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. IS.

Culler, R.D. (1974). Skiffs and schooners. International Marine Publishing Company, Camden, ME. IS.

Dodds, James. (2001). Rudyard Kipling's the shipwrights' trade. Mystic Seaport Museum, Mystic, CT.

Dodge, Ernest S., Ed. (1972). Thirty years of the American Neptune. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. IS.

Dow, George Francis and Edmonds, John Henry. (1996). The pirates of the New England coast 1630 - 1730. Dover Publications, New York, NY. IS.

Duncan, Roger F. (2000). Dorothy Elizabeth: Building a traditional wooden schooner. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.

Gardner, John. (September 1969). Shipwrights' tools. Log of Mystic Seaport. 21(3). pg. 91-95. W.

Gillingham, Walter P. (March 1950). Ships' tackle blocks. The Chronicle. 3(22). pg. 194-195. IS.

Goldenberg, Joseph. (1976). Shipbuilding in colonial America. University of Virginia Press for the Mariner’s Museum, Charlottesville, VA. IS.

Hall, Christopher and Lee, Lance. (1975). Apprenticing revived. The Apprenticeshop of the Bath Maritime Museum, Bath, ME. IS.

Hall, Christopher and Lee, Lance. (1975). The Crotch Island pinky. The Apprenticeshop of the Bath Maritime Museum, Bath, ME. IS.

Hammond, Robert R. (1967). An era to remember: A historical sketch of the shipbuilding industry in west Washington county. Self published, Harrington, ME. IS.

Holland, Rupert Sargent. (1926). Historic ships. Macrae Smith Company, Philadelphia, PA. IS.

Horsley, John E. (1978). Tools of the maritime trades. International Marine Publishing, Camden, ME.

Leavitt, John F. (1971). Wake of the Coasters. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT.

Lever, Darcy. (1819). The young sea officer's sheet anchor or a key to the leading of rigging and to practical seamanship. J. Richardson, London. Reprinted in 1998 by Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, NY. IS.

Madsen, Betsy Ridge and Burnham, Maria. (1981). Dubbing, hooping, and lofting: Shipbuilding skills. The Cricket Press, Inc., Manchester, MA. IS.

Martin, Kenneth R. (1975). Whalemen and whaleships of Maine. Harpswell Press, Brunswick, ME. IS.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. (1965). Spring tides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. IS.x

Morris, Paul C. (1979). American sailing coasters of the North Atlantic. Bonanza Books, New York, NY. IS.

Pickett, Gertrude M. (1979). Portsmouth's heyday in shipbuilding. Published by Joseph G. Sawtelle. IS.

Robinson, Edward. (December 31, 1817). Account book for sloop Betsy, Warren, Maine. Handwritten. IS.

Rumsey, Barbara. (1995). Hodgdon shipbuilding and mills: A documentary history of the first hundred years: 1816-1916. The East Boothbay Series, #1, Winnegance House and Boothbay Region Historical Society, Boothbay, ME. IS.

Schreiber, Laurie. (2016). Boatbuilding on Mount Desert Island. The History Press, Charleston, SC.

Smith, Hervey Garrett. (1990). The arts of the sailor: knotting, splicing, and ropework. Dover, NY, NY.

Stackpole, Edouard A. (1967). The Charles W. Morgan: The last wooden whaleship. Meredith Press, New York, NY.

Steel, David. (1794). The Elements and practice of rigging and seamanship. Vol. 1. David Steel, London, UK.

Story, Dana. (1964). Frame-up! The story of Essex, its shipyards and its people. Barre Publishers, Barre, MA. IS.

Story, Dana. (1971). The building of a wooden ship "sawn frames and trunnel fastened". Barre Publishers, Barre, MA. IS.

Story, Dana. (1995). The shipbuilders of Essex: A chronicle of Yankee endeavor. Ten Pound Island Book Company, Gloucester, MA. IS.

Svensson, Sam. (1998). The Lore of Ships. Barnes & Noble. IS.

Whittemore, Edwin. (January 1955). Ship building in early New England. The Chronicle. 8(1). pg. 4-7, 9. IS.

Shoemakers
(see cobblers)

Silversmiths and Jewelers

Bovin, Murray. (1970). Centrifugal or lost wax jewelry casting for schools, tradesmen, craftsmen. Self published, 68-36 108th St., Forest Hills, NY. IS.

Coyne, John, ed. (1975). The Penland School of Crafts book of jewelry making. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, IA. IS.

De Matteo, William. (MCMLXVI). The silversmith in eighteenth-century Williamsburg: An account of his life & times, & of his craft. Williamsburg Craft Series, Colonial Williamsburg, VA. IS.

Finegold, Rupert and Seitz, William. (1983). Silversmithing. Chilton Book Co., Radnor, PA.

Kane, Patricia E. et. al. (1998). Colonial Massachusetts silversmiths and jewelers. Yale University Art Gallery/ University Press of New England. W.

Kauffman, Henry J. (1969). The colonial silversmith: His techniques & his products. T. Nelson, Camden, NJ. IS.

Martin, Charles and D'Amico, Victor. (1949). How to make modern jewelry. Art for Beginners Series, The Museum of Modern Art, Simon and Schuster, NY, NY. IS.

Steam Engines

Hills, Richard. (1989). Power from steam: A history of the stationary steam engine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Spratt, H.P. (1950). Outline history of transatlantic steam navigation.

Thurston, Robert Henry. (1891). A manual of the steam-engine. Part 1, structure and theory, Part 2, design, construction, and operation. 2 vols. Publisher unknown, NY.

Westbury, Edgar T. (1970). Building a steam engine from castings. Model & Allied Publications Ltd., Hertfordshire, England. IS.

Surgery

Milne, J. S. (1907). Surgical instruments in Greek and Roman times. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.

Surveying

Bedini, Silvio A. (1975). Artisans in wood: The mathematical instrument-makers. In: Hindle, Brooke, Ed. America's wooden age: Aspects of its early technology. Sleepy Hollow Restorations, Tarrytown, NY. IS.

Buff & Buff Mfg. Co. (1938). Surveying instruments: For civil and mining engineers. Buff & Buff Mfg. Co., Boston, MA. IS. Finch, J. K. (1918). Plane surveying: A practical treatise on the art of plane surveying, including chaining, leveling, compass and transit measurements, land and construction surveying, topographic surveying, and mapping. American Technical Society, Chicago, IL. IS.

Gurley, W. & L. E. (1874). A manual of American engineer & surveyor's instruments. Twenty-first edition. Reprinted in 1993 by Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Smart, Charles E. (1962). The makers of surveying instruments in America since 1700. Regal Art Press, Troy, NY.

Tanning

Didsbury, J. (March 1964). Oak and hemlock bark for tanning. The Chronicle. 17(1). pg. 10-12. IS.

Didsbury, J. (June 1964). Oak and hemlock bark for tanning (continued). The Chronicle. 17(2). pg. 23-24. IS.

Textiles

Albright, Frank P. (September 1972). Notes on spinning wheels. The Chronicle. 25(3). pg. 36-39. IS.

Anonymous. (December 1958). Some notes on the cotton gin. The Chronicle. 11(4). pg. 60-64. IS.

Catling, Harold. (1970). The spinning mule. David & Charles, Newton Abbot, UK.

Chase, William H. (1950). Five generations of loom builders. Draper, Hopedale, MA.

Cole, A.H. (1926). The American wool manufacture. Vol. 1. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Fannin, Allen. (1976). Handspinning: Art & technique. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, NY. IS.

Gaines, Ruth. (May 1941). Homespun. The Chronicle. 2(17). pg. 137, 139-141. IS.

Gemming, Elizabeth. (1979). Wool gathering: Sheep raising in old New England. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, New York, NY. IS.

Gross, Laurence. (1987). Wool carding: A study of skill and technology. Technology and Culture 28. pg. 807-827.

Huff, F. and Didsbury, J. (June 1959). The spinning wheel. The Chronicle. 12(2). pg. 13-16. IS.

Johnson, Laurence A. (March 1958). The niddy-noddy. The Chronicle. 11(1). pg. 4-7. IS.

MacFarlane, Janet and Parslow, Virginia. (October 1954). Hand processing wool in America. The Chronicle. 7(4). pg. 37 - 40. IS.

McGouldrick, Paul F. (1968). New England textiles in the nineteenth century: Profits and investments. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. IS.

Ralph, William. (June 1972). The spinning wheel: A neglected tool. The Chronicle. 25(2). pg. 22-27.IS.

Ralph, William. (September 1972). Collecting spinning wheels. The Chronicle. 25(3). pg. 40-42. IS.

Robinson, Harriet H. (1898). Loom and spindle. Thomas Crowell & Co., NY, NY.

Robinson, Stella. (1983). Textiles. Endeavour Books. Wayland Ltd., Brighton, England. IS.

Starbuck, David R. (1986). The Shaker mills in Caterbury, New Hampshire. IA, Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 12. pg. 11-37.

Swain, Frank K. (May 1941). Two unusual flax wheels. The Chronicle. 2(17). pg. 173-174. IS.

van Wagenen, Jared, Jr. (1953). The golden age of homespun. Hill and Wang, NY. IS.

Timber Framing and Housebuilding

Benjamin, Asher. (1827). The American builder's companion; or, a system of architecture, particularly adapted to the present style of building. R. P. & C. Williams, Boston, MA. Reprinted in 1969 by Dover Publications, NY. IS.

Beaudry, Michael. (2009). Crafting frames of timber. Mud Pond Hewing and Framing, Montville, ME. IS.

Benson, Tedd. (1980). Building the timber frame house: The revival of a forgotten craft. Scribner, NY, NY.

Berg, Donald J. (1986). How to build in the country: Good advice from the past on how to choose a site, plan, design, build, landscape & furnish your home in the country. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. IS.

Blackburn, Graham. (1974). Illustrated housebuilding. Overlook Press, Woodstock, NY.

Chamberlain, Samuel. (1937). Beyond New England thresholds. Hastings House, NY, NY.

Chambers, Robert. (August/September 1986). Scribe-fitting a log house. Fine Homebuilding. 34.

Chappell, Steve. (1998). A timber framer's workshop. Fox Maple Press, West Brownfield, ME.

Condit, Carl W. (1968). American building: Materials and techniques from the first colonial settlements to the present. Chicago, IL.

Early Trades and Crafts Society. (1971). Barn builder’s words. Prepared by the Early Trades and Crafts Society for the members of the Early American Industries Association. IS.

Elliot, Stewart. (1978). The timber frame planning book. Contemporary Books, Chicago, IL.

Elliot, Stewart and Wallas, Eugene. (1997). The timber framing book. Housesmiths Press, York, ME.

Fickes, Clyde P. and Groben, W. Ellis. (1945). Building with logs. Publication No. 579. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Fine Homebuilding Editors. (1996). Timber-framed houses. The Taunton Press, Newtown, CT.

Garvin, James L. (2002). A building history of northern New England. University Press of New England, Dartmouth, NH. IS.

Gauthier-Larouche, Georges. (1974). Evolution de la maison rurale traditionelle dans la region de Quebec. Les Presses de L'Universite Laval Quebec.

Graham, Frank D. and Emery, Thomas J. (1945). Audels masons and builders guide # 4. Theo. Audel & Co., Publishers, New York, NY. IS.

Harris, Richard. (2001). Discovering timber-framed buildings. Shire Publications, Ltd., Essex, UK.

Hewett, Cecil A. (1997). English historic carpentry. Linden Publishing, Fresno, CA. IS.

Hunt, W. Ben. (1974). How to build and furnish a log cabin. Collier Books, NY.

Isham, Norman Morrison. (1968). Early American houses: The seventeenth century. Classic Guide books to the Visual Arts, American Life Foundation, Watkins Glen, NY.

Kahn, Lloyd. (1973). Shelter. Shelter Publicatioins, Bolinas, CA.

Kahn, Lloyd. (2004). Home work: Handmade shelter. Bolinas, CA.

Kahn, Lloyd. (2008). Builders of the Pacific coast. Bolinas, CA.

Keith, Wilbur C. (1992). Homebuilding and woodworking in colonial America. The Globe Pequot Press, Old Saybrook, CT.

Kellogg, Elijah. (1867-1883). Uncle Seth builds a windmill. Reprinted in 1973. Prepared for Oct. 23, 1973 meeting of the Early Trades & Crafts Society. IS.

Langsner, Drew. (1982). The logbuilder's handbook. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA.

Mackie, Allan B. (1997). Building with logs. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY.

McRaven, Charles. (1994). Building and restoring the hewn log house. Betterway Books, Cincinnati, OH.

Newman, Rupert. (2005). Oak-framed buildings. Guild of Master Craftsman Publications, East Sussex, UK.

Petesen, David. (July/August 1985). Building the traditional hewn-log home: A mini manual. Mother Earth News. 94.

Phleps, Hermann. (1982). The craft of log building. Lee Valley Tools, Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, CA.

Roberts, Warren E. (July 1977). The tools used in building log houses in Indiana. Pioneer America. Reprinted in September, 1978 by the Mid-West Tool Collectors Association and the Early American Industries Association. IS.

Shurtleff, Harold R. (1939). The log cabin myth. Cambridge, MA.

Sobon, Jack. (1997). Historic American timber joinery - a graphic guide. Timber Framers Guild, Becket, MA.

Sobon, Jack and Schroeder, Roger. (1984). Timber frame construction: All about post and beam building. Storey Communications, Inc., Pownal, VT. IS.

Wilbur, C. Keith. (1992). Homebuilding and woodworking in colonial America. The Globe Pequot Press, Old Saybrook, CT.

Tinsmithing

Bailey, Gillian W. B. (April 1951). Tin plate and the tinker. The Chronicle. 4(2). pg. 13-15. IS.

Butts, Isaac R. (1863). The tinman's manual, and builder's and mechanic's handbook, designed for tinmen, japanners, coppersmiths, engineers... I.R. Butts & Co., Boston, MA.

Demer, John H. (December 1973). How tinsmiths used their tools. The Chronicle. In: Pollak, Emil and Pollak, Martyl, Eds. (1991). Selections from The Chronicle: The fascinating world of early tools and trades. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.

Demer, John H. (1978). Jedediah North's tinner's tool business. The Early American Industries Association, South Burlington, VT. IS.

Lansansky, Jeannette. (1982). To cut, piece & solder: The work of the rural Pennsylvania tinsmith 1778-1908. Oral Traditions Project of the Union County Historical Society, Courthouse, Lewisburg, PA. IS.

McMillen, William. (June 2013). The tinsmith in America -- the trade, materials, tradesmen, tools, and products. The Chronicle. 66(2). pg. 45-55. IS.

Shagena, Jack L. (2006). An illustrated history of tinware in America: How the tinsmith, peddler, tinker, and toolmaker built an industry. Self published by Jack L. Shagena, Bel Air, MD.

Smith, Elmer L. (1976). Tinware: Yesterday and today. Applied Arts Publishers, Lebanon, PA. IS.

Vosburgh, H. K. (1879). The tinsmith's helper and pattern book: With useful rules, diagrams and tables. Reprinted 1910 revised edition in 1994 by Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Toolmaking
Also see the extensive citations in volumes 6 and 11 of the Hand Tools in History publication series.

Burch, Monte. (2004). Making Native American hunting, fighting and survival tools. Lyons Press, Guilford, CT.

Comte, Hubert. (1997). Tools: Making things around the world. Translated from French by Molly Stevens and David Marinelli. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Durell, Edward. (September 1965). Dating a tool. The Chronicle. 18(3). pg. 38-40. IS.

Hawley, Ken. (Autumn 1991). Edge tool makers. The Tool and Trades History Society Newsletter. 35. pg. 48. W.

Horsley, John E. (1978). Tools of the maritime trades. International Marine Publishing, Camden, ME. W.

Sarpolus, Dick. (2001). Collectible blowtorches. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS(2).

Townsend, Raymond R. (December 1956). Hand tools for making fishhooks. The Chronicle. 9(4). pg. 37-41. IS.

Waldorf, D. C. (1993). The art of flint knapping. Fourth Edition. Self published.

Weygers, Alexander G. (1973).The making of tools. Anchor Books, Doubleday, NY.

Wolcott, S.C. (October 1958). Classification of certain American tools of certain trades. The Chronicle. 11(3). pg. 54-55. IS.

Woodworth, Joseph V. (1910). American tool making and interchangeable manufacturing. Norman W. Henley Publishing, NY, NY.

Whaling

Allen, Everett S. (1973). Children of the light: The rise and fall of New Bedford whaling and the death of the arctic fleet. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA. IS.

Brewington, M.V. (September 1968). The tools of a whaler's cooper. The Chronicle. 21(3). pg. 40-42. IS.

Foreman, Henry Chandlee. (1966). Early Nantucket and its whale houses. Hastings House, New York, NY. IS.

Gardner, Will. (1945). Three bricks and three brothers: The story of the Nantucket whale-oil merchant Joseph Starbuck. The Riverside Press, Cambridge, MA. IS.

Horsley, John E. (1978). Tools of the maritime trades. International Marine Publishing, Camden, ME. W.

Lytle, Thomas G. (1984). Harpoons and other whalecraft. The Old Dartmouth Historical Society Whaling Museum, New Bedford, MA. X.

Stackpole, Edouard A. (1953). The sea-hunters: The New England whalemen during two centuries: 1635-1835. J.B. Lippincott Company, NY. IS.

Verrill, A. Hyatt. (1916). The real story of the whaler: Whaling, past and present. D. Appleton and Company, New York, NY. IS.

Wheelwrights

Peloubet, Don, Ed. (date unknown). Wheelmaking: Wooden wheel design and construction. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Sturt, George. (2000). The wheelwright's shop. Cambridge University Press.

Woodworking
Also see planemaking, timber framing, coopers, and shipbuilding

Aber, R. James. (April 13, 1980). A glossary of woodworking joints. Written for a meeting of Crafts of NJ. IS.

Anonymous. (September 1967). Tool study -- hatchets. The Chronicle. 20(3). pg. 46-47. IS.

Anonymous. 1992. The cutting edge, an exhibition of Sheffield tools. Exhibition Catalog. The Ruskin Gallery, Sheffield, UK.

Ball, John E. (1991). Audel: Carpenters and builders Library: Volume One: Tools, steel square, joinery. Macmillan Publishing Company, NY, NY. IS.

Bassett, James. (2009). Chisels, chisels, chizzels by the old chisseler hisself. The Shed and Shop, Derby, VT.

Bjerkoe, Ethel Hall. (1962). The cabinetmakers of America. Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Exton, PA. IS.

Blackburn, Graham. Traditional woodworking handtools: A manual for the woodworker, a guide for the enthusiast. The Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Bramwell, Martyn, Ed. (1976). The international book of wood. Simon And Schuster, NY, NY. IS.

Chippendale, Thomas. (1762). The gentleman and cabinet-maker's director: Being a large collection of the moft elegant and useful designs of household furniture, in the moft fashionable taste. The third edition. London. Reprinted in 1966 by Dover Publications Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Carlson, Robert. (1975). Auger points. Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Carlson, Robert H. and Stevens, Thomas A. (December 1967). On the origin of the spiral auger. The Chronicle. 20(4). pg. 49-53. IS.

Christensen, Erwin O. (1952). Early American wood carving. Dover Publications Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Dunbar, Michael. (1989). Restoring, tuning & using classic woodworking tools. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Early Trades and Crafts Society. (undated). A sampling from the active scrapbook. Prepared for Oct. 15 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Eason, Julie Anne. (Summer 1998). The hand tools you use with your feet. The Fine Tool Journal. 48(1). pg. 8-10. IS.

Eaton, Reg. (1989). The ultimate brace: A unique product of Victorian Sheffield. Witley Press Ltd., Hunstanton, UK. IS.

Edlin, Herbert L. (1969). What wood is that? A manual of wood identification. The Viking Press, New York, NY. IS.

Feirer, John L. (1960). Industrial arts: Woodworking. Chas. A. Bennett Co., Inc., Peoria, IL. IS.

Feirer, John L. (1988). Cabinetmaking and millwork. Fifth Edition. Glencoe Publishing Company, Mission Hills, CA. IS.

Fisher, Leonard Everett. (1966). Colonial American craftsmen: The cabinetmakers. Franklin Watts, Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Foley, Vernard and Moyer, Richard H. (June 1977). The American axe: Was it better? The Chronicle. 30(2). pg. 28-32. IS.

The Forest Products Laboratory. (1955). Wood handbook: Basic information on wood as a material of construction with data for its use in design and specification. Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. IS.

G. & D. Cook & Co. (1860). Illustrated catalogue of carriages and special business advertiser. Reprinted in 1970 by Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. IS.

Gaynor, James M., Ed. (1997). Eighteenth-century woodworking tools: Papers presented at a tool symposium: May 19-22, 1994. Colonial Williamsburg Historic Trades. Volume III. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, VA. IS.

Goodman, W.L. (1964). The history of woodworking tools. David McKay Company, Inc., NY, NY. IS. Graham, Frank D. and Emery, Thomas J. (1923). Audels carpenters and builders guide #1: A practical illustrated trade assistant on modern construction for carpenters - joiners, builders - mechanics and all wood workers. 4 vols. Theo. Audel & Co., NY, NY. IS.

Green, Harvey. (2007). Wood: Craft, culture, history. Penguin, NY, NY.

Green-Plumb, Jonathon. (2012). Early European decorated tools from the woodworking and allied trades. Stobart Davies Ltd., Ammanford, UK.

Grosvenor, Melville Bell, Ed. (1975). The craftsman in America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. IS.

Hampton, C.W. and Clifford, E. (1934). Planecraft: Hand planing by modern methods. Reprinted in 1972 by Woodcraft Supply Co., Woburn, MA. IS.

Hansen, John. (1970). A cabinet maker’s and joiner’s miscellaney. Unpublished, prepared for the Nov. 17, 1970 meeting of the Early Trades and Crafts Society. IS.

Hasluck, Paul N., Ed. (1905). The handyman's book of tools, materials, and processes employed in working wood. Cassell and Company, Limited, NY, NY. IS. Reprinted as Wood working in November, 1987, by North Village Publishing Co., Lancaster, MA. IS.

Heine, Gunther. (June 1995). Toolmakers of Hamburg in the 19th century: The manufacture of tools of the woodworking trades. The Chronicle. 48(2). pg. 47-53. IS.

Heuvel, Johannes. (1963). The cabinetmaker in eighteenth-century Williamsburg. Williamsburg Craft Series, Williamsburg, VA.

Hewett, Cecil A. (date unknown). English historic carpentry. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.

Hibben, T. (1933). The carpenter's tool chest. London.

Hoadley, R. Bruce. (2000). Understanding wood: A craftsman's guide to wood technology. Taunton, Newtown, CT.

Hodgson, Fred T. (1883). The carpenters' steel square, and its uses. Being a description of the square, and its uses in obtaining the lengths and bevels of all kinds of rafters, hips, groins, braces, brackets, purlins, collar-beams, and jack-rafters; also, its application in obtaining the bevels and cuts for hoppers, spring mouldings, octagons, stairs, diminished stiles, etc., etc., etc. Palliser, Palliser & Co., Bridgeport, CT. IS.

Hock, Ron. (2009). The perfect edge: The ultimate guide to sharpening for woodworkers. Popular Woodworking Books, Cincinnati, OH. IS.

Hutchins, Joseph. (September 2011). The American screw auger. The Chronicle. 64(3). pg. 89-107. IS.

Jones, Bernard E., Ed. (1980). The Complete Woodworker. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. IS.

Kebabian, Paul B and Witney, Dudley. (1978). American Woodworking Tools. New York Graphic Society, Boston, MA. IS(2).

Kebabian, Paul B. and Lipke, William C., Eds. (1979). Tools and Technologies: America's wooden age. Robert H. Fleming Museum, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.

Klingler, Eugene L. (June 1988). American braces in the 19th century: Pre-Barber and post-Barber -- Part I. The Chronicle. 41(2). pg. 21-23. IS.

Lamond, Thomas C. (1997). The spokeshave book: Manufactured and patented spokeshaves & similar tools. Tom Lamond, 30 Kelsey Place, Lynbrook, NY 11563.

Lamond, Thomas C. (Summer 1998). An updated look at Windsor Beader. The Fine Tool Journal. 48(1). pg. 11-12. IS

Lamond, Thomas C. (September 1999). Spokeshaves and similar tools. The Chronicle. 52(3). pg. 108-113. IS.

Lane, Joshua W. (2003). Woodworkers of Windsor: A Connecticut community of craftsmen and their world, 1635-1715. Historic Deerfield, Deerfield, MA.

Lanz, Henry. (1985). Japanese woodworking tools: Selection, care and use. Sterling Publishing Co., New York, NY.

Lapp, Henry. (1991). A Craftsman's Handbook. Good Books. IS.

Lasswell, Pat. (Winter 2001). Carpenter's inventory: North Providence, Rhode Island: 1796. Sign of the Jointer. 2(4). pg. 85-91. IS.

Mercer, Henry C. (January 1926). Ancient carpenter's tools, part IV: Tools for surfacing, chopping and paring (continued). Old Time New England The Bulletin of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 16(3). pg. 118-137. IS. Mercer, Henry C. (April 1927). Ancient carpenter's tools, part VI: Tools for shaping and fitting (continued). Old Time New England The Bulletin of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 17(4). pg. 179-191. IS. Mercer, Henry C. (July 1928). Ancient carpenter's tools, part VIII: Tools for shaping and fitting (continued). Old Time New England The Bulletin of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 19(1). pg. 28-43. IS. Mercer, Henry C. (1929). Ancient carpenters' tools together with lumbermen's, joiners' and cabinet makers' tools in use in the eighteenth century. Horizon Press. Fifth edition reprinted in 1975 by the Bucks County Historical Society. IS. Nagyszalanczy, Sandor. (1998). The art of fine tools. Taunton Press, Newtown, CT. Neary, John. (December 1980?). Book reviews: Books on tools that evoke nostalgia and explain how to check the set of an adze. Americana. pg. 81-84. IS.

Northcott, W. Henry. (1868). A treatise on lathes and turning. Longmans, Green and Co., London. Second edition published in 1876 by Linden Publishing Co, Inc., Fresno, CA. IS.

Odate, Toshio. (1998). Japanese woodworking tools: Their tradition, spirit and use. Linden Publishing, Inc., Fresno, CA. W.

Peters, Rick. (2000). Woodworker's guide to wood: Softwoods, hardwoods, plywoods, composites, veneers. Sterling Pub. Co., NY, NY.

Price, James E. (Spring 1996). The olde tool column: Obscure patented hollow augers. The Fine Tool Journal. 45(4). pg. 11. IS.

Price, Jim. (Winter 2005). Early handforged spoke pointer. Fine Tool Journal. 54(3). pg. 23. IS.

Pye, David. (1971). The nature and art of workmanship. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, NY.

Rees, Mark. (1987). Airtight case making - the planes and their uses. Tools & Trades. 4.

Roberts, Kenneth D. (1980). Some 19th century English woodworking tools: Edge and joiner tools and bit braces. K. Roberts Publishing Company, Fitzwilliam, NH.

Romaine, Lawrence B. (April 1953). A Yankee carpenter and his tools. The Chronicle. 6(2). pg. 33-34. IS.

Romaine, Lawrence B. (April 1955). The American carpenter. The Chronicle. 8(2). pg. 16. IS.

Russell, David. (2010). Antique woodworking tools: Their craftsmanship from the earliest times to the twentieth century. John Adamson, Cambridge, UK.

Schwarz, Christopher. (Spring 2007). Rotary lapping machines.The Fine Tool Journal. 56(4). pg. 7-10.

Schwarz, Christopher. (2011). The anarchist's tool chest. Lost Art Press, Fort Mitchell, KY.

Shea, John G. (1975). Making authentic country furniture: With measured drawings of museum classics: With 794 construction plans and illustrations. Dover Publications Inc., NY, NY. IS.

Singleton, Esther. (1913). The furniture of our forefathers. Garden City, NY. IS.

Smitten, Stanley L. (1870). The woodworking lathe to 1850. No publisher. IS.

Stokes, J. (1829). Complete cabinetmaker's and upholsterer's guide. Dean and Munday, London.

Straffin, Dean. (December 1989). A treatise on the chisel axe. The Chronicle. 42(4). pg. 89 - 90. IS.

Thwing, L. L. (November, 1937). Clapboards. The Chronicle. 2(2). pg. 15 - 16. IS.

Thwing, L. L. (December 1949). The woodworker in France and England. The Chronicle. 3(21). pg. 181-182. IS.

Thwing, L. L. (June 1950). The woodworker in England. The Chronicle. 3(23). pg. 205, 213. IS.

Walker, Philip. (1997). Woodworking tools before 1700. In: Eighteenth century woodworking tools, Papers presented at a tool symposium, May 19-22, 1994. Gaynor, Jay, Ed. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, VA.

Welsh, Peter C. (1965). Woodworking tools, 1600-1900. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper 51. Bulletin 241. United States National Museum, Washington, DC, pg. 179-227.

Welsh, Peter C. (1966). Woodworking tools 1600 – 1900. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. IS.

Wildung, Frank H. (1957). Woodworking tools at Shelburne Museum. Museum Pamplet Series, No. 3. The Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, VT. Facsimile. IS.

Wolcott, Stephen C. (July 1934). The Frow -- a useful tool. The Chronicle. 1(6). pg. 1, 3. IS.

Wood Turning Center and Yale University Art Gallery. (2001). Wood turning in North America since 1930: Exhibition catalog. IS.

Wyatt, E. M. (1936). Common woodworking tools: Their history. Milwaukee, WI.

Wyllie, Robin H. (December 1986). The Swedish axe in North America. The Chronicle. 39(4). pg. 53-56. IS.

Wrenches

Eckers, Steve. (2007). U. S. wrench patents 1790-1911. Self-published, E. Northport, NY.

Gaier, Dan. (Winter 2005). Reach for the wrench. Fine Tool Journal. 54(3). pg. 16-18. IS.

Page, Herb (Mr. Oldwrench). (Spring 2001). "No name" wrenches. The Fine Tool Journal. 50(4). pg. 23-24. IS.

Page, Herb (Mr. Oldwrench). (Fall 2002). Reach for the wrench: The song of the monkey-wrench. The Fine Tool Journal. 52(2). pg. 17-18. IS.

Page, Herb. (Fall 2005). Reach for the wrench: Vintage auto wrenches. The Fine Tool Journal. pg. 16-18. IS.

Page, Herb. (2006). Reach for the wrench. Fine Tool Journal. 56(2). pg. 17. IS.

Snyder, Donald. (1990). My first 1000 wrenches. Coplin Printing, Youngstown, OH. IS.

Snyder, Donald. (1992). My second 1000 wrenches. Coplin Printing, Youngstown, OH. IS.

Staten, Vince. (1996). Did monkeys invent the monkey wrench? Hardware stores and hardware stories. Simon & Schuster, NY, NY.IS.